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Ryu Saiki and Humio Mitsudera

1. Introduction A plumelike structure of sea ice often appears in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in polar oceans ( Fig. 1 ). This organized structure of sea ice is called an ice band. Formation of ice bands causes increases in the area of open water in MIZ, and rapid melting may be promoted. Therefore, it has been suggested that the seasonal evolution of the MIZ is likely influenced by ice-band pattern formation (e.g., Martin et al. 1983 ). Fig . 1. Satellite images of ice-band patterns from

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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

1. Introduction Changes in the Arctic sea-ice extent have been dramatic; in particular, the September Arctic sea-ice extent has been rapidly decreasing and its year-to-year variations of sea-ice concentration over the marginal seas to the northern coast of Alaska and Siberia have declined since 1979. The September sea-ice concentrations over the marginal seas not only exhibit a decreasing trend but also are correlated with the variations in September sea-ice extent over the entire Arctic Ocean

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

mechanisms are involved in the formation of NPIW with density heavier than 26.8 σ θ . The source water of NPIW heavier than 26.8 σ θ is mainly subject to the ventilation processes in the Sea of Okhotsk ( You et al. 2000 ). In the northwestern shelf region, sea ice production leads to the production of cold, oxygen-rich dense shelf water (DSW) with densities up to 27.0 σ θ ( Shcherbina et al. 2003 ). The DSW is transported southward into the intermediate layer in the southern Okhotsk Sea by the East

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Shinichiro Kida, Bo Qiu, Jiayan Yang, and Xiaopei Lin

varying climatological ERA-Interim wind stress (monthly means minus annual mean; Dee et al. 2011 ), it simulates the annual cycle that is analogous to that observed ( Fig. 3 ). Maximum transport occurs in summer and minimum transport occurs in winter ( Fig. 3b ). The bottom topography is based on the 1-minute gridded elevations/bathymetry for the world (ETOPO1) with a minimum depth of 10 m, and the horizontal resolution is of a degree, capable of resolving the straits. The effect of sea ice is not

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Fumiaki Ogawa and Thomas Spengler

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) for the period 1979–2015. The data are available at 0.75° resolution with a 6-hourly time interval providing analyses at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC. We interpolated the data onto a 0.5° grid and use the 10-m zonal ( u 10 ) and meridional ( υ 10 ) wind components, temperature ( T 2 ) and dewpoint ( T d 2 ) at 2 m, sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice concentration, as well as surface

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

. Atmos. Sci., 28 , 492 – 510 . Lorenz , E. N. , 1963 : Deterministic nonperiodic flow . J. Atmos. Sci. , 20 , 130 – 141 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1963)020<0130:DNF>2.0.CO;2 . Manizza , M. , C. Le Quéré , A. J. Watson , and E. T. Buitenhuis , 2005 : Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L05603 , doi: 10.1029/2004GL020778 . Manizza , M. , C. Le Quéré , A. J. Watson , and E. T. Buitenhuis

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

dynamical core ( Park et al. 2014 ), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2; Smith et al. 2010 ), Community Ice Code version 4 ( Hunke and Lipscomb 2008 ), Community Land Model version 4 ( Lawrence et al. 2011 ), and CESM Coupler 7 with the Large and Yeager (2009) air–sea flux routine. The highest-resolution simulation used here, with 0.25° resolution in the atmosphere and nominal 0.1° in the ocean, is described in full in Small et al. (2014) . It was run for 100 years under “present-day” (year 2000

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, and Shang-Ping Xie

rainband mechanisms in the AOGCM, and section 7 gives concluding remarks. 2. Data and methods We use two models: the AGCM for the Earth Simulator (ES), version 3 (AFES; Ohfuchi et al. 2004 , 2007 ; Enomoto et al. 2008 ; Kuwano-Yoshida et al. 2010a ), and the coupled atmosphere–ocean GCM for the Earth Simulator (CFES; Komori et al. 2008 ; Taguchi et al. 2012 ), which consists of AFES and the Coupled Ocean–Sea Ice Model for the ES (OIFES; Komori et al. 2005 ). AFES is based on the Center for

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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

. P. , M. J. McPhadden , and J. M. Wallace , 1989 : The influence of sea surface temperature on surface wind in the eastern equatorial Pacific: Weekly to monthly variability . J. Climate , 2 , 1500 – 1506 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1989)002<1500:TIOSST>2.0.CO;2 . Hong , S.-Y. , J. Dudhia , and S.-H. Chen , 2004 : A revised approach to ice microphysical processes for the bulk parameterization of clouds and precipitation . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 103 – 120 , doi: 10

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

details and experimental design The CAM5 GCM ( Neale et al. 2010 ), coupled to the Community Land Model version 2 and forced by prescribed SST and sea ice, is used for all experiments in this study. CAM5 is integrated with a finite-volume dynamical core and contains 30 unequally spaced vertical levels using a hybrid pressure–sigma coordinate system. Notably, there are approximately 8 levels within the boundary layer (>800 hPa). We run two configurations of the model: a high-resolution (HR) version

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