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Uma S. Bhatt, Donald A. Walker, Martha K. Raynolds, Josefino C. Comiso, Howard E. Epstein, Gensuo Jia, Rudiger Gens, Jorge E. Pinzon, Compton J. Tucker, Craig E. Tweedie, and Patrick J. Webber

1. Introduction Arctic land surface temperatures have increased ( Kaufman et al. 2009 ) and are predicted to continue warming with major repercussions for terrestrial ecosystems ( ACIA 2004 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ; Post et al. 2009 ). Observational studies have documented the well-known cooling effect that sea ice has on adjacent landmasses ( Rouse 1991 ; Haugen and Brown 1980 ), whereas global climate model simulations show that coastal Arctic land surfaces warm when summer sea

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Jacob O. Sewall

the climate system, including atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, were held constant) of a reduction in Arctic sea ice cover of up to 50%. That study was similar to other work investigating the impact of prescribed changes in Arctic ice cover on climate in an atmospheric GCM ( Rind et al. 1995 ; Alexander et al. 2004 ; Deser et al. 2004 ; Magnusdottir et al. 2004 ). However, unlike Deser et al. ( Deser et al. 2004 ) and Magnusdottir et al. ( Magnusdottir et al. 2004 ), Sewall and Sloan ( Sewall

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Walter N. Meier, James A. Maslanik, Charles W. Fowler, and Jeffrey R. Key

1. Introduction The polar regions play an important role in the global climate due in part to the effects of sea ice and cloud cover on albedo and energy transfer. Turbulent heat fluxes during winter and solar energy absorbed by the ocean in summer are controlled largely by the open-water area and lead fraction in the ice pack, while radiative fluxes are regulated primarily by solar insolation, cloud properties, and surface albedo/emissivity. Efforts to gain a better understanding of these

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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

–water–bedrock vertical configurations. In the color shading, white is ice, brown is bare ground (L), and blue is ocean. The ice shelves are cross-hatched areas; land ice with base under sea level (marine based) is hatched. The major basins are outlined (brown thick lines) according to surface elevation. The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) and West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) are labeled. Some ice shelves, glaciers, and seas also are labeled: Wilkins Ice Shelf (WIS), Bindschadler Ice Stream (BIN), Ross Ice Shelf, Filchner

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Ayan H. Chaudhuri and Rui M. Ponte

1. Introduction Sea ice is a key component of the Arctic Ocean physical system and can control the exchange of heat, water, momentum, and gases at the sea surface. Changes in the albedo of the surface brought on by changes in the ice cover over very large areas are a major factor in global climate change. The summer extent of the Arctic sea ice cover, widely recognized as an indicator of climate change ( Hassol 2005 ), has been declining for the past few decades. The ice pack is also thinning

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Arindam Samanta, Bruce T. Anderson, Sangram Ganguly, Yuri Knyazikhin, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Ranga B. Myneni

. 2009 ). 2. Model and experiments We use version 3 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (NCAR CAM 3.0). This GCM consists of a fully dynamic atmosphere model (CAM 3.0) coupled to an interactive land model [Community Land Model (CLM) 3.0], a thermodynamic sea ice model, and a slab ocean model ( Collins et al. 2006 ). The atmosphere (CAM 3.0) and land (CLM 3.0) models are part of the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3; Kiehl et al

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Mark A. Snyder and Lisa C. Sloan

1. Introduction The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (i.e., CO 2 , CH 4 , and NO 2 ) derived from anthropogenic sources has produced measurable changes in global climate since preindustrial times ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). Increases in global mean annual temperature and decreasing Arctic sea ice are two examples of changes attributed to anthropogenic emissions ( Johannessen et al. 1999 ; Jones et al. 2000 ). The Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel

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Y. C. Sud, G. K. Walker, V. M. Mehta, and William K-M. Lau

annual cycle of solar irradiance is the primary source of energy for the entire internal dynamics of the Earth–atmosphere system and imparts a variety of timescales to the thermal forcing of different regions of the system, which, in turn, immensely complicates the outcome because of nonlinear feedback interactions among them. There is a vast body of literature on the influence of the sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the solar heating of Eurasian landmasses (e.g., the Tibetan Plateau) on the

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Peter A. Bieniek, Uma S. Bhatt, Donald A. Walker, Martha K. Raynolds, Josefino C. Comiso, Howard E. Epstein, Jorge E. Pinzon, Compton J. Tucker, Richard L. Thoman, Huy Tran, Nicole Mölders, Michael Steele, Jinlun Zhang, and Wendy Ermold

1. Introduction Many climatic changes have been documented in the Arctic summer over the satellite record and at longer time scales, most notably increasing surface air temperatures and a decline in sea ice ( Berner et al. 2005 ; Melillo et al. 2014 ). These climatic variations are especially pronounced in the Arctic due to the role of polar amplification ( Bekryaev et al. 2010 ; Serreze and Barry 2011 ), which is caused primarily by decreasing sea ice cover. The decline in sea ice has had

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Evgeny A. Podolskiy

to readjust to additional stresses quickly. Past and ongoing transfers of mass from the ice sheets to the oceans result in changes in the gravitational field and vertical land movements and thus changes the height of the ocean relative to land. These large-scale changes, plus local tectonic movements, influence the regional impact of sea level rise ( Lambeck and Johnston 1998 ; Mitrovica et al. 2001 ; Peltier 1998 ). Future predictions of sea level rise published by the Intergovernmental Panel

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