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Vinodkumar, A. Chandrasekar, K. Alapaty, and Dev Niyogi

phase. Over the seas, the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) surface wind and the vertical profiles of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Television and Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) temperature and humidity data were utilized. Over the land regions, conventional surface and upper-air observations from the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the vertical profiles of humidity and temperature from NOAA TOVS, along with the surface

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond

snow, where w liq,1 and w ice,1 are the mass of liquid water and ice (kg m −2 ) stored on top of the urban surface and w pond,max is the maximum amount of water that the surface can hold (1 kg m −2 ). This latter formulation is analogous to the treatment of the wetted fraction of the vegetated canopy in CLM3 ( Oleson et al. 2004 ). The approach used here to represent pervious surfaces is different from many urban schemes designed for use within mesoscale and global models. Most urban schemes

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