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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

Atlantic, i.e. that the system is controlled by the variability in velocity, not in temperature, which is lost in the noise level. 4. Ice cover Sea ice is an important component of the model at high latitudes, where observed ice cover is part of the misfit function. Its temporal variability (not shown) is primarily in the Southern Ocean annual cycle (with 92% of its temporal variance) and the semiannual one (5% of the variance). Higher EOFs are nearly white noise and none of them suggests a sea ice

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J. A. Whitehead

polar origin to sink and fill all oceans below about 2000 m. The required volume flux is large, on order 10 7 m 3 s −1 . Wintertime deep convection examples are known in the Labrador Sea, in the Greenland Sea, within the Gulf of Lyons in the western Mediterranean Sea, and in the Weddell Sea. In addition, sea-ice growth is strongly retarded in the Arctic when the freshwater layer is not present ( Björk et al. 2002 ) and when events characterized by changes in layer salinity of the Arctic Ocean

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Michael A. Spall

-dimensional circulation but also from its fundamental importance for the vorticity balance of the fluid. While the thermohaline circulation is often discussed in the context of the Atlantic Ocean, there are analogous circulations in numerous marginal seas, some in the Atlantic Ocean, in which water mass transformation takes place, such as the Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian (GIN) Seas, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, and Persian Gulf. While the thermohaline circulation is often depicted as a two

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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

heat and salt budget analyses. Section 7 supplies further discussion on the nature of PMV. 2. Model and experimental design CCSM3 is a state-of-art global climate model consisting of four components of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface, which are linked through a flux coupler ( Collins et al. 2006 ). We use the version of CCSM3 at T31x3 resolution ( Yeager et al. 2006 ). The atmospheric component is the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3) at T31 resolution with 26 levels in

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