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Michael A. Spall

1. Introduction The Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the global climate system through its absorption/reflection of solar radiation (which is strongly dependent on the presence of sea ice), as a conduit for freshwater input from rivers, and through water mass modification by exporting both fresh buoyant surface waters and dense salty deep waters. The Arctic Ocean is a semienclosed marginal sea that is connected to the lower-latitude oceans through several shallow and/or narrow passages

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R. M. Holmes and L. N. Thomas

. , C. Cooper , C. Senior , H. Banks , J. Gregory , T. Johns , J. Mitchell , and R. Wood , 2000 : The simulation of SST, sea ice extents and ocean heat transports in a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments . Climate Dyn. , 16 , 147 – 168 , doi: 10.1007/s003820050010 . Graham , T. , 2014 : The importance of eddy permitting model resolution for simulation of the heat budget of tropical instability waves . Ocean Modell. , 79 , 21 – 32 , doi

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Jörn Callies and Raffaele Ferrari

quite similar for the different regimes. 4. Review of previous observations of submesoscale spectra a. In situ observations Early observations of wavenumber spectra of potential energy in the submesoscale range were often interpreted in terms of internal-wave variability. Katz (1973) reported on tow experiments in the Sargasso Sea thermocline and showed that spectra on scales between about 50 km and 30 m scaled close to . He discussed their relation to the GM model spectra, which were later

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