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Ryan D. Torn and Gregory J. Hakim

-WRF) model ( Skamarock et al. 2005 ) on a nested domain. The outer domain has 30-km horizontal grid spacing and covers the eastern United States and the northern Caribbean Sea ( Fig. 1 ). The inner domain has 10-km horizontal grid spacing and covers the Gulf of Mexico and Florida during 1200 UTC 26 August–0000 UTC 29 August ( Fig. 1 ). Both domains have 38 vertical levels, and use the following components: WRF three-class microphysics scheme ( Hong et al. 2004 ), Kain–Fritsch cumulus parameterization

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Fuqing Zhang, Yonghui Weng, Jason A. Sippel, Zhiyong Meng, and Craig H. Bishop

1. Introduction Landfalling hurricanes are among the deadliest and costliest natural hazards. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in short-range track forecasts of tropical cyclones. The current-day average 48-h forecast position is as accurate as a 24-h track forecast was 10 yr ago ( Franklin 2004 ). However, there is virtually no improvement in our ability to predict hurricane intensity in terms of minimum sea level pressure, maximum wind speed, or amount of precipitation

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Hyun Mee Kim and Byoung-Joo Jung

simple radiation cooling scheme, horizontal and vertical diffusion, dry convective adjustment, and explicit treatment of cloud water, rain, snow, and ice. The same physical parameterizations are used in the tangent linear model (TLM) and adjoint model integrations, although the moist physics scheme used in TLM and adjoint model integrations is large-scale precipitation instead of the Grell convective scheme and explicit treatment of cloud water, rain, snow, and ice used in basic state integrations

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Hyun Mee Kim and Byoung-Joo Jung

diffusion, dry convective adjustment, large-scale precipitation, and explicit treatment of cloud water, rain, snow, and ice. Physical parameterizations of NLM, TLM, and adjoint model integrations 4 in the specific simulations are shown in Table 1 . The same parameterizations were used in the TLM and adjoint model integrations for each experiment. EXP1 (EXP2) was designed to calculate SVs without (with) linear moist physics on the full physics basic state. For EXP1, the dry TE norm was used to

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