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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

1. Introduction Changes in the Arctic sea-ice extent have been dramatic; in particular, the September Arctic sea-ice extent has been rapidly decreasing and its year-to-year variations of sea-ice concentration over the marginal seas to the northern coast of Alaska and Siberia have declined since 1979. The September sea-ice concentrations over the marginal seas not only exhibit a decreasing trend but also are correlated with the variations in September sea-ice extent over the entire Arctic Ocean

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Yoshi N. Sasaki and Chisato Umeda

provided by the UK Met Office as the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset version 1 (HadISST; Rayner et al. 2003 ). This dataset was presented on a 1° × 1° horizontal grid for the years between 1870 and 2010. The other dataset was a SST dataset presented by Minobe and Maeda (2005) and contained anomalous climatology data from the climatology for the period from 1950 to 2000. It had a horizontal resolution of 1° × 1° and encompassed the years from 1850 to 2002. This dataset is

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Fumiaki Ogawa and Thomas Spengler

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) for the period 1979–2015. The data are available at 0.75° resolution with a 6-hourly time interval providing analyses at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC. We interpolated the data onto a 0.5° grid and use the 10-m zonal ( u 10 ) and meridional ( υ 10 ) wind components, temperature ( T 2 ) and dewpoint ( T d 2 ) at 2 m, sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice concentration, as well as surface

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

. Atmos. Sci., 28 , 492 – 510 . Lorenz , E. N. , 1963 : Deterministic nonperiodic flow . J. Atmos. Sci. , 20 , 130 – 141 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1963)020<0130:DNF>2.0.CO;2 . Manizza , M. , C. Le Quéré , A. J. Watson , and E. T. Buitenhuis , 2005 : Bio-optical feedbacks among phytoplankton, upper ocean physics and sea-ice in a global model . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L05603 , doi: 10.1029/2004GL020778 . Manizza , M. , C. Le Quéré , A. J. Watson , and E. T. Buitenhuis

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

dynamical core ( Park et al. 2014 ), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2; Smith et al. 2010 ), Community Ice Code version 4 ( Hunke and Lipscomb 2008 ), Community Land Model version 4 ( Lawrence et al. 2011 ), and CESM Coupler 7 with the Large and Yeager (2009) air–sea flux routine. The highest-resolution simulation used here, with 0.25° resolution in the atmosphere and nominal 0.1° in the ocean, is described in full in Small et al. (2014) . It was run for 100 years under “present-day” (year 2000

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, and Shang-Ping Xie

rainband mechanisms in the AOGCM, and section 7 gives concluding remarks. 2. Data and methods We use two models: the AGCM for the Earth Simulator (ES), version 3 (AFES; Ohfuchi et al. 2004 , 2007 ; Enomoto et al. 2008 ; Kuwano-Yoshida et al. 2010a ), and the coupled atmosphere–ocean GCM for the Earth Simulator (CFES; Komori et al. 2008 ; Taguchi et al. 2012 ), which consists of AFES and the Coupled Ocean–Sea Ice Model for the ES (OIFES; Komori et al. 2005 ). AFES is based on the Center for

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

details and experimental design The CAM5 GCM ( Neale et al. 2010 ), coupled to the Community Land Model version 2 and forced by prescribed SST and sea ice, is used for all experiments in this study. CAM5 is integrated with a finite-volume dynamical core and contains 30 unequally spaced vertical levels using a hybrid pressure–sigma coordinate system. Notably, there are approximately 8 levels within the boundary layer (>800 hPa). We run two configurations of the model: a high-resolution (HR) version

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, Sarah Larson, and Robert A. Tomas

4 . J. Climate , 24 , 4973 – 4991 , . 10.1175/2011JCLI4083.1 Grooms , I. , A. J. Majda , and K. Shafer Smith , 2015 : Stochastic superparameterization in a quasigeostrophic model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current . Ocean Modell. , 85 , 1 – 15 , . 10.1016/j.ocemod.2014.10.001 Hunke , E. C. , and W. H. Lipscomb , 2008 : CICE: The Los Alamos sea ice model user’s manual, version 4. Los Alamos

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

. Transient eddy activity and fluxes were estimated from high-pass daily values, using the Blackmon filter to retain fluctuations with periods between 2 and 8 days ( Blackmon and Lau 1980 ; Hurrell and Deser 2009 ). In addition, the latent and sensible heat fluxes were taken from the 1° objectively analyzed air–sea fluxes (OAFlux) product provided by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution ( Yu and Weller 2007 ). Sea ice cover (SIC) and snow cover extent (SCE) datasets provided by NOAA/National Climatic

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James F. Booth, Young-Oh Kwon, Stanley Ko, R. Justin Small, and Rym Msadek

. Booth et al. (2010) showed that for JJA in the Indian Ocean, there are two active regions in the surface storm track: one near the ARC and another near the sea ice edge. Related to this, Nakamura and Shimpo (2004) emphasize that the ARC helps maintain a strong storm track during SH summer (DJF). Given the climatological importance of storm tracks and the role of WBCs in forcing surface storm tracks, it stands to reason that surface storm tracks in GCMs are a good variable to analyze to check

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