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Junchao Shi, Massimo Menenti, and Roderik Lindenbergh

Sensing Symp., 2003. Vol. 3, Toulouse, France, IEEE, 1534 – 1536 . Abshire, J. , Sun X. , Riris H. , Sirota J. , McGarry J. , Palm S. , Yi D. , and Liiva P. , 2005 : Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat mission: On-orbit measurement performance . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 32 , L21S02, doi:10.1029/2005GL024028. Andreas, E. L , 1987 : A theory for the scalar roughness and the scalar transfer coefficients over snow and sea ice . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 38 , 159

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Rafael Pimentel, Javier Herrero, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, and María J. Polo

-dimensional temperature model for a snow cover: Technical documentation for SNTERERM.89. Special Rep. 91 - 16 , Cold Region Research and Engineers Laboratory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hanover, NH, 61 pp . Jordan, R. E. , Andreas E. L , and Makshtas A. P. , 1999 : Heat budget of snow-covered sea ice at North Pole 4 . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 7785 – 7806 , doi: 10.1029/1999JC900011 . Kalman, R. E. , 1960 : A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems . J. Basic Eng., 82, 35

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Haolu Shang, Li Jia, and Massimo Menenti

, observation bias, and possible noise. The daily SSM/I and AMSR-E data gridded into the EASE-Grid ( Brodzik and Knowles 2002 ) were downloaded from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) ( Armstrong et al. 1998 ). The Poyang Lake area covers 10 pixels of EASE-Grid data, as indicated in Fig. 1 by the white-numbered squares. The upstream area of the Poyang Lake covers the four major tributary river systems coming from the west, southwest, southeast, and east, and indicated in Fig. 1 by the gray

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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

located in Maqu County, in the southeastern part of the SRYR that produces more than 54% of the total runoff over the SRYR. The elevation in this region varies from 3200 to 4200 m above mean sea level, and the climate is characterized by dry cold winters and rainy summers. The annual mean air temperature is 1.2°C, and the mean temperatures of the coldest month (January) and warmest month (July) are −10° and 11.7°C, respectively. The alpine meadow species (e.g., Cyperaceae and Gramineae ) are the

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Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Rolf H. Reichle, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

transition point at the field capacity beyond which h = h max . For water bodies, wetland, urban areas, and ice, h is uniformly set to 0. For forests and barren areas, h is uniformly set to 0.3. As shown in Eq. (5) , we use LAI and LEWT to characterize the vegetation opacity. The LEWT values for Lit1 shown in Table 1 are based on Yilmaz et al. (2008 , and references therein) for different vegetation types. Note that the SMAP Level 2 passive soil moisture products use the Normalized Difference

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