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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

1. Introduction Aerosols contribute directly to atmospheric variability and to Earth’s radiative balance through scattering and absorption of solar radiation. Aerosols also contribute indirectly through complex aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) indicates that while the mechanisms of aerosol direct effects are well known, the uncertainties in the estimates of aerosol direct and indirect effects are larger than any

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave . J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 16 663 – 16 682 , doi: 10.1029/97JD00237 . Morrison , H. , 2012 : On the robustness of aerosol effects on an idealized supercell storm simulated with a cloud system-resolving model . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 12 , 7689 – 7705 , doi: 10.5194/acp-12-7689-2012 . Nesbitt , S. W. , R. Y. Zhang , and R. E. Orville , 2000 : Seasonal and global NO X production by lightning estimated from the Optical

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

: Can ice-nucleating aerosols affect Arctic seasonal climate? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 88 , 541 – 550 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-4-541 . Qian , Y. , D. Gong , J. Fan , L. R. Leung , R. Bennartz , D. Chen , and W. Wang , 2009 : Heavy pollution suppresses light rain in China: Observations and modeling . J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , D00K02 , doi: 10.1029/2008JD011575 . Quaas , J. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Aerosol indirect effects—General circulation model intercomparison and

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Tianmeng Chen, Jianping Guo, Zhanqing Li, Chuanfeng Zhao, Huan Liu, Maureen Cribb, Fu Wang, and Jing He

, 2003 : Seasonal characteristics of precipitation in 1998 over East Asia as derived from TRMM PR . Adv. Atmos. Sci. , 20 , 511 – 529 , doi: 10.1007/BF02915495 . Garrett , T. J. , and C. Zhao , 2006 : Increased Arctic cloud longwave emissivity associated with pollution from mid-latitudes . Nature , 440 , 787 – 789 , doi: 10.1038/nature04636 . Garrett , T. J. , C. Zhao , X. Dong , G. G. Mace , and P. V. Hobbs , 2004 : Effects of varying aerosol regimes on low-level Arctic

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Jianjun Liu, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb

-scale meteorological forcing [e.g., lower-tropospheric stability (LTS; Wood and Bretherton 2006 )] and with aerosol properties. This suggests that a long data record is needed to disentangle the meteorological impact from aerosol effects on clouds ( Teller and Levin 2006 ; Wood 2009 ; Koren et al. 2010 ). With the goal of better understanding the seasonal and diurnal variations in MBL cloud properties and their response to aerosol perturbations, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

, 2012 ; Van den Heever et al. 2011 ) and explained by a conceptual theory proposed by Rosenfeld et al. (2008a) and a revised theory ( Fan et al. 2013 ). Whether aerosols invigorate or suppress cloud and thunderstorms seems to depend on the joint effects of aerosol radiative and microphysical effects: suppression for absorbing aerosols and enhancement for hygroscopic aerosols ( Yang et al. 2013a , b ; Yang and Li 2014 ). Both observational and modeling studies have shown that the AIV can lead to

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

water vapor and subsequently reduces drop sizes ( Twomey 1974 ). In mixed-phase clouds, aerosol effects are more complex because of multiple phase changes and the associated thermodynamic processes simultaneously occurring in different locations ( Seifert and Beheng 2006 ). The addition of CCN has competing effects on precipitation depending on whether warm or cold precipitation processes dominate; for example, warm precipitation processes will be suppressed, but cold precipitation processes can

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Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Monika Kohn, Berko Sierau, Assaf Zipori, Ian Crawford, Gary Lloyd, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Piotr Kupiszewski, Martin Steinbacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

and be able to distinguish them from long-term climatic effects and feedbacks. Furthermore, to quantify the anthropogenic aerosol effect in terms of the radiative forcing of the climate system, an understanding of the potential of the natural background aerosol to form ice-containing clouds is essential ( Lohmann and Kärcher 2002 ). This requires long-term (over periods from weeks to months) and recurrent measurements at the same locations. To our knowledge, only two long-term studies of INP

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Camille M. Sultana, Olga Laskina, Jonathan Trueblood, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Kimberly A. Prather, Vicki Grassian, and Paul J. DeMott

). SML samples, collected utilizing the same method as the MART study, were collected and analyzed on days 0, 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 ( Fig. 2 ). Freezing-point-depression effects in SW and SML samples are not accounted for in this study, as discussed in method S1 in the SI. Fig . 2. Timeline of (a) different tests performed on each day, including heat treatments (red fill), size filtering (blue crosses), hydrogen peroxide digestion (orange crosses), and collections of ICRs for Raman (asterisks) and

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