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Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Rolf H. Reichle, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

H- and V-polarized SMOS observations to obtain climatologically unbiased Tb from the modeling system. The calibration is designed to mitigate long-term biases. Short-term random errors and (seasonal) biases can be accounted for within the data assimilation system ( De Lannoy et al. 2007 ; Reichle et al. 2010 ). Ultimately, the calibrated modeling system developed here will facilitate Tb assimilation to improve global estimates of surface and root zone soil moisture, soil temperature, and

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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

. In the latest version (version 3.4.1) of Noah (N3.4), seasonal values of z 0m are calculated based on GVF, and the Zilitinkevich (1995) empirical coefficient C zil is computed as a function of canopy height via z 0m ( Chen and Zhang 2009 ) using a relationship derived from 12 AmeriFlux datasets collected over a variety of land covers and climate regimes. Similar modifications have been proposed recently by Z12 to improve the cold bias in the daytime T sfc simulation over the arid

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Junchao Shi, Massimo Menenti, and Roderik Lindenbergh

influenced by effects like cloud attenuation, system noise, and morphology. In January 2003, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) loaded on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), whose accuracy reaches 15 cm in the vertical direction within an approximately 65-m footprint, with a spacing of about 172 m between two adjacent shots ( Abshire et al. 2005 ). Compared to radar altimeter missions, the emitted pulse width

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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

management (e.g., man-made reservoirs and irrigation water withdrawals) substantially affects the land surface hydrological dynamics, as these effects are not represented in most land surface models. In this study, we propose a relatively simple method that integrates RS-based seasonal and yearly P and ET estimates with minimum ground data for assessing water balance and storage changes in a spatially distributed manner. The methodology is tested and applied for the large semiarid Konya basin

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Haolu Shang, Li Jia, and Massimo Menenti

canopy. To obtain the fractional area of WSS and standing water for seasonal vegetation–covered areas in temperate zones, we simplified the zero-order radiative transfer model ( Kirdiashev et al. 1979 ; Wigneron et al. 1993 ) to retrieve the polarized effective emissivity difference from PDBT. The soil water saturation has a quasi-linear relationship with its PEED. We found that the fractional area of WSS and standing water can be represented by the soil water saturation, taking the spatial

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Rafael Pimentel, Javier Herrero, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, and María J. Polo

evolution is made by using simple empirical relationships between the snowmelt flux and selected meteorological variables ( Kustas et al. 1994 ). However, in these areas, the marked annual, seasonal, and even weekly variability of temperature, wind, and rainfall make this a difficult approach to apply in practice, and energy and mass balance equations are usually needed to capture these highly variable conditions ( Anderson 1976 ). Many physically based point models for the mass and energy balance in

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