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Ivana Cerovečki and Matthew R. Mazloff

formation region ( Fig. 7l ). Equatorward, the destruction is due to mixing with warmer thermocline water ( Fig. 8l ). Poleward, the destruction is due to the combined effects of surface ocean heat loss ( Fig. 8h ) and salinity increase. The salinity increase is partly caused by brine rejection due to sea ice formation ( Figs. 9h,p ). Overall, despite strong seasonal water mass transformations between water in the SAMW density range and lighter water [ Fig. 6 ; Table 1 : Southern Ocean], the net

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Matthew R. Mazloff, Raffaele Ferrari, and Tapio Schneider

do not apply. Held and Schneider (1999) , Schneider et al. (2003) , and Schneider (2005) showed that nonquasigeostrophic effects at the boundaries (specifically, relatively large isopycnal slopes) modify the overall residual circulation of the atmosphere. Similar issues may arise in the ocean. Plumb and Ferrari (2005) extended the planetary geostrophic system in (1) – (4) to account for nonquasigeostrophic effects. However, their momentum and buoyancy equations involve terms that are

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Sophia T. Merrifield, Louis St. Laurent, Breck Owens, Andreas M. Thurnherr, and John M. Toole

mixing rates, spatial and temporal patterns have been inferred. Thompson et al. (2007) conclude that the regions north and south of the Polar Front (PF) are dynamically different. Wu et al. (2011) suggested that seasonality in the wind stress at the surface contributes to seasonality in mixing rates as deep as 1500 m. Because of finescale biases in mixing rates from previously published studies, there is a renewed need to discuss the patterns and dynamics using direct measurements in this region

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Marina Frants, Gillian M. Damerell, Sarah T. Gille, Karen J. Heywood, Jennifer MacKinnon, and Janet Sprintall

1994 ; Klymak et al. 2008 ; Ferron et al. 1998 ). However, ship motion effects and low-stratification conditions can affect the accuracy of finescale methods in extreme environments such as the Southern Ocean. Because finescale methods offer the promise of inexpensive global maps of vertical diffusivity, there is a strong impetus to apply them to the existing archive of hydrographic data. Density profiles are of particular interest because there is a long historical archive of density data, and

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Byron F. Kilbourne and James B. Girton

important for accurately modeling the amplitude of the ocean current response to wind variations. When H is constant, | Z | scales as 1/ H . For the storm response period, the slab model mixed layer depth was held constant at 80 m, which matches vertical density profiles near the time of the storm. Other slab model studies have used smoothed or climatological mixed layer depths ( Alford 2001 ; Plueddemann and Farrar 2006 ). These time-varying mixed layers accurately modulate the seasonal cycle of

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Ross Tulloch, Raffaele Ferrari, Oliver Jahn, Andreas Klocker, Joseph LaCasce, James R. Ledwell, John Marshall, Marie-Jose Messias, Kevin Speer, and Andrew Watson

, and the model cycles repeatedly over the years for which OCCA is defined (2004–06). The simulations are intended to capture the statistics of the seasonal cycle and mesoscale of the Southern Ocean near the Drake Passage rather than predict the specific ocean state at the time of the DIMES tracer release. The model domain (excluding where restoring is applied to the OCCA state estimate) is shown in Figs. 3 and 4 . A more detailed description of the model setup is given in appendix B . Fig . 3

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