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Anthony M. DeAngelis, Hailan Wang, Randal D. Koster, Siegfried D. Schubert, Yehui Chang, and Jelena Marshak

Hurk , B. , F. Doblas-Reyes , G. Balsamo , R. D. Koster , S. I. Seneviratne , and H. Camargo Jr ., 2012 : Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe . Climate Dyn. , 38 , 349 – 362 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2 . 10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2 Vogel , E. , M. G. Donat , L. V. Alexander , M. Meinshausen , D. K. Ray , D. Karoly , N. Meinshausen , and K. Frieler , 2019 : The effects of climate

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Richard Seager, Jennifer Nakamura, and Mingfang Ting

national economy. Often not recognized, drought also has serious impacts on the mental health of farming families and people in agricultural communities with long-lasting effects [see U.S.-based review by Vins et al. (2015) ]. Improved understanding and forecasting of drought at least provides the possibility of improved anticipation of, and adaptation to, drought conditions with potential benefits for people and society. Understanding the physical causes of droughts in North America, and the relative

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Yaling Liu, Dongdong Chen, Soukayna Mouatadid, Xiaoliang Lu, Min Chen, Yu Cheng, Zhenghui Xie, Binghao Jia, Huan Wu, and Pierre Gentine

1. Introduction Soil moisture (SM) is an essential component of the Earth system. It affects the variability of the coupled energy (latent and sensible heat fluxes) and water fluxes (runoff and evapotranspiration) by modifying the partitioning of water and energy across the land–atmosphere interface ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). The effects of SM on evapotranspiration also impact temperature variability and may intrigue persistent heatwaves ( Fischer et al. 2007 ; Hirschi et al. 2011

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Chul-Su Shin, Bohua Huang, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Subhadeep Halder, and Arun Kumar

. Earth Syst. Sci. , 21 , 3777 – 3798 , https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-3777-2017 . 10.5194/hess-21-3777-2017 Kumar , S. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Effects of realistic land surface initializations on subseasonal to seasonal soil moisture and temperature predictability in North America and in changing climate simulated by CCSM4 . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 119 , 13 250 – 13 270 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022110 . 10.1002/2014JD022110 Luo , L. , D. Apps , S. Arcand , H. Xu , M

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Chul-Su Shin, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Bohua Huang, Subhadeep Halder, and Arun Kumar

remotely sensed estimates and assessment of surface-atmosphere coupling . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 120 , 12 096 – 12 111 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023812 . 10.1002/2015JD023812 van den Hurk , B. , F. Doblas-Reyes , G. Balsamo , R. Koster , S. Seneviratne , and H. Camargo Jr ., 2012 : Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe . Climate Dyn. , 38 , 349 – 362 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2 . 10.1007/s00382

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