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Scott Curtis, Ahmed Salahuddin, Robert F. Adler, George J. Huffman, Guojun Gu, and Yang Hong

considerably. The Niño-3.4 region (5°S–5°N, 160°E–150°W) SST anomaly index was used to define the strength of ENSO and identify individual El Niño and La Niña events. Niño-3.4 is generally the preferred index of ENSO when examining the widespread global effects of ENSO ( Trenberth 1997 ). Niño-3.4 was normalized over the entire record for the monthly analysis ( section 3a ) and seasonally for the daily analysis ( section 3b ). For determining relationships involving frequency data at the 0.25° grid block

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

societal benefits that accurate seasonal forecasts promise to provide. Koster et al. (2000) have assessed the effects of soil moisture on the predictability of seasonal precipitation over the continents and found that soil moisture effects exceed those of SST contributions in some areas during the summer months. These effects are discussed in more detail in the following section. 3. The response of surface hydrology Land–atmosphere interactions vary according to the wetness of the surface. Surface

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

concerning the mechanical effects of the TP on large-scale motion, the winter cold surge, and the summer negative vorticity source over the TP. The review also covers the importance of the thermal influences of the TP on the seasonal circulation transition and Asian monsoon onset based on different datasets and numerical experiments ( Ye and Gao 1979 ; Tao and Chen 1987 ; Wu 2004 ; Wu et al. 1997a , 2002 , 2004 ; Liu et al. 2001 ; Liu X. et al. 2001 , 2002 ; Mao et al. 2002a , b ; Wang and Lin

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Xia Zhang, Shu Fen Sun, and Yongkang Xue

: The soil moisture distribution, thawing–freezing processes and their effects on the seasonal transition on the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) plateau. J. Asian Earth Sci. , 21 , 457 – 465 . 10.1016/S1367-9120(02)00069-X Yang, Z. L. , Dickinson R. E. , Robock A. , and Vinnikov K. Y. , 1997 : Validation of the snow submodel of the Biosphere–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme with Russian snow cover and meteorological observational data. J. Climate , 10 , 353 – 373 . 10

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

moisture, runoff, streamflow and river discharge into the oceans ( Dai and Trenberth 2002 , 2003 ), atmospheric moisture flows and divergence ( Trenberth and Guillemot 1998 ; Dai and Trenberth 2002 ; Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003a ), atmospheric moisture storage ( Trenberth and Smith 2005 ), and freshwater flows in the ocean ( Dai and Trenberth 2003 ). Related issues are the effects of temperature and water-holding capacity, relative versus specific humidity ( Dai 2006 ), covariability of temperature

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

parameterization scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 126 , 2599 – 2620 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126<2599:CTFFAM>2.0.CO;2 Kanamitsu, M. , and Coauthors , 2002 : NCEP dynamical seasonal forecast system 2000. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 1019 – 1037 . 10.1175/1520-0477(2002)083<1019:NDSFS>2.3.CO;2 Kim, J. , 1986 : The effects of an isolated mesoscale island on s stably-stratified airstream. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Atmospheric Science, Oregon State University, 59 pp . Kim, J. , 1990 : Turbulent and gravity

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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

about the multiscale effects of land–atmosphere interaction remain unclear, for example, what are the impacts of the high-frequency variability of soil moisture on the low-frequency variations of precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric circulations? The above review concludes that soil moisture affects precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric circulation relatively simultaneously via its effect associated with surface energy balance, and less concurrently through its memory effect. These

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

.S.–Mexico border. The narrow, north–south stretching upper Rio Grande basin is bounded by the U.S. Continental Divide on the west and by the Sangre de Cristo Mountains on the east and covers an area of 92 000 km 2 . The basin’s elevation varies considerably, from over 4200 m at the highest elevation of the San Juan Mountains to less than 1200 m in El Paso, Texas. The basin’s water resources include both surface water and groundwater. Seasonal precipitation, including the wintertime, large-scale, front snowfall

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