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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

overall recommendation of the 2010 Stratosphere–Troposphere Processes and Their Role in Climate (SPARC) Chemistry–Climate Model Validation (CCMVal) report ( SPARC CCMVal 2010 ). In this paper, the stratospheric temperature results and ozone distributions from the model are investigated to determine the likely effects of natural and anthropogenic processes on the historical stratosphere (1860–2005), including the effects of volcanoes and human produced halocarbons. 2. Description of model and

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled model (CM3). AM3 is built upon the scientific and software framework of GFDL AM2 ( Anderson et al. 2004 ). Its major developmental thrusts were chosen to enable AM3 to explore several key, emerging questions in climate and climate change that could not be addressed with AM2, such as: 1) What are the roles of aerosol–cloud interactions, specifically indirect effects of aerosols? 2) What are the dominant chemistry–climate interactions? AM3

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

different feedback mechanisms impacting SST versus SSS (see, e.g., Griffies et al. 2009b ), it is useful to investigate both fields when characterizing the physical integrity of a simulation. As the ocean models in CM2.1 and CM3 use real water fluxes, the global mean ocean salinity is modified through changes in ocean volume (through precipitation, evaporation, river runoff, and sea ice formation/melt), as well as exchange of salt with the sea ice model. These effects are relatively small, thus leaving

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

the total anthropogenic impact of greenhouse gases, and aerosol direct and indirect effects between PD and PI conditions: where F PD and F PI are PD and PI net global mean top-of-the-atmosphere radiation fluxes (positive downward). Total anthropogenic RFP incorporates the effects of fast atmospheric responses to greenhouse gases and aerosols but not slower responses because of changes in sea surface temperatures. Because fast processes are considered, both the first indirect effect (“cloud

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