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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

hydrological and biophysical exchanges in a GCM, namely the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) ( Hasumi and Emori 2004 ). MATSIRO simulates the exchange of water vapor, energy, and momentum between the land surface and atmosphere on a physical basis. Effects of vegetation on surface energy balance are calculated by a multilayer canopy model ( Watanabe 1994 ) and a photosynthesis–stomatal conductance model ( Collatz et al. 1991 ). A simplified TOPMODEL ( Beven and Kirkby 1979

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

from seconds to years, by measuring the covariance between the fluctuations in vertical wind velocity and CO 2 mixing ratio ( Baldocchi 2003 ). Quantifying the temporal variation in ecosystem CO 2 exchange rates at one site helps to clarify the effects of environmental variation on ecosystem physiological processes. Data gathered during fluctuations in environmental conditions are useful to develop physiological response curves for whole-ecosystem response to changes in temperature, light, and so

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

the Caribbean Islands). It extends from Panama in the south to southern Mexico in the north across six other Central American countries (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Belize). The region is biophysically diverse with topography marked by the Central American cordillera that reaches over 4000 MSL and runs close to the Pacific coast ( Fig. 1 ), leaving larger and longer basins on the Atlantic watershed. Climate is tropical and rainfall follows a bimodal seasonal cycle

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

. , Balsamo G. , Koster R. D. , Seneviratne S. , and Camargo H. Jr. , 2011 : Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe . Climate Dyn. , doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2, in press . Vinnikov, K.Ya. , and Yeserkepova I. B. , 1991 : Soil moisture: Empirical data and model results . J. Climate , 4 , 66 – 79 . Wagner, W. , Lemoine G. , and Rott H. , 1999 : A method for estimating soil moisture from ERS scatterometer and soil data . Remote

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

installed at both sites to measure the vertical profile of concentrations of H 2 O and CO 2 and air temperature and to estimate storage effects within the plant canopy using a closed-path IRGA (model: LI-6262, LI-COR Inc.) and a thermocouple (model: Type-E, OMEGA Engineering Inc.) ( Hong et al. 2008 ; Yoo et al. 2009 ). The profile system, controlled by the dataloggers (model: CR-23X-TD, Campbell Scientific Inc.), was automatically calibrated on a daily basis for H 2 O zero and CO 2 zero

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

1. Introduction Severe weather over the Mediterranean has only recently become the object of thorough analyses despite its prominent scientific interest and its strong effects on the heavily populated countries surrounding the basin. Preliminary studies have concentrated on the Western Mediterranean (e.g., Romero et al. 1999 ; Jansa et al. 2001 ) and the Eastern Mediterranean (e.g., Nicolaides et al. 2004 ; Ziv et al. 2009 ). A general classification of cloud systems associated with the

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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

does not include snow and ice anywhere. In addition to the six 1-km global land cover datasets, a snow analysis produced from surface observation data and satellite data in the Japanese 25-yr reanalysis (JRA-25; Onogi et al. 2007 ) was used to evaluate the interannual variability of seasonal snow cover. 3. Methodology Global total areas for each land cover type of each 1-km global land cover dataset and per-pixel agreements of each water-related land cover type were calculated, taking into account

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

modeling procedure. Furthermore, the analysis of WUE has implications in terms of human impacts on the carbon and water cycles. Because a water deficit is prevented by a sufficient water supply in managed croplands, mean WUE S in croplands (0.85 g C kg −1 H 2 O) is generally lower than that in natural ecosystems (0.92 g C kg −1 H 2 O). Therefore, the past conversion of natural ecosystems into croplands may have lowered the total WUE S , with considerable effects on biospheric metabolism. For example

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