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Huan Wu, Robert F. Adler, Yudong Tian, Guojun Gu, and George J. Huffman

underestimations of precipitation, leading to considerable negative effects on spring runoff results. Flood peaks are generally underestimated by NLDAS-2 ( Fig. 6 ), although there is a slight overestimation (1.8%) of the year-round streamflow. The NLDAS-2-Ref corresponds to more overestimation (14%) or larger bias in the overall streamflow; however, it can maintain or slightly increase the daily NSC (from 0.77 to 0.79) as NSC is sensitive to peak simulation. The seasonal performance indicates that CPC-U has

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Munir A. Nayak, Gabriele Villarini, and A. Allen Bradley

there is a strong relationship between these two quantities, though its nature is not linear but monotonic (the values of the Spearman correlation coefficients are generally larger than the Pearson correlation coefficients). The strength of the relationship decreases in the regions farther away from the AR major axis ( Figs. 9b,c ). Another research question we shed light on in this study involves the examination of the effects of AR duration on rainfall. We have three persistent ARs, two of which

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Young-Hee Ryu, James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Luciana K. Cunha, Elie Bou-Zeid, and Witold Krajewski

during the 2013 period, and to complement these observational analyses with an examination of the potential effects of saturation properties in the lower atmosphere on heavy rainfall using a numerical model. Questions that motivate the study include the following: How do distributional properties of warm season rainfall over Iowa during heavy rainfall seasons differ from rainfall properties during other years? How does the regional distribution of heavy rainfall in the central United States vary with

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Merhala Thurai, Kumar Vijay Mishra, V. N. Bringi, and Witold F. Krajewski

.-H. Lee , S.-H. Jung , K.-Y. Nam , and G.-W. Lee , 2016 : Attenuation correction effects in rainfall estimation at X-band dual-polarization radar: Evaluation with a dense rain gauge network . Adv. Meteor. , 2016 , 9716535, doi: 10.1155/2016/9716535 . 10.1155/2016/9716535 Park , S.-G. , M. Maki , K. Iwanami , R. Misumi , and V. N. Bringi , 2004 : Correction of radar reflectivity and differential reflectivity for rain attenuation and estimation of rainfall at X-band wavelength. Sixth Int

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Kumar Vijay Mishra, Witold F. Krajewski, Radoslaw Goska, Daniel Ceynar, Bong-Chul Seo, Anton Kruger, James J. Niemeier, Miguel B. Galvez, Merhala Thurai, V. N. Bringi, Leonid Tolstoy, Paul A. Kucera, Walter A. Petersen, Jacopo Grazioli, and Andrew L. Pazmany

– 1394 , doi: 10.1016/S0309-1708(02)00062-3 . Krajewski, W. F. , Anagnostou E. N. , and Ciach G. J. , 1996 : Effects of the radar observation process on inferred rainfall statistics . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 26 493 – 26 502 , doi: 10.1029/96JD01616 . Krajewski, W. F. , Ciach G. J. , and Habib E. , 2003 : An analysis of small scale rainfall variability in different climatological regimes . Hydrol. Sci. J. , 48 , 151 – 162 , doi: 10.1623/hysj. . Krajewski, W. F

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