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Yiwen Mei, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Marco Borga

systematic error over high-altitude basins. b. Effects of basin scale, seasonality, and flow severity As mentioned above, goal of this study is to quantify the performance of satellite precipitation-product-driven hydrologic simulations by rendering the MRE ( Fig. 6 ), CRMSE ( Fig. 7 ), and CC ( Fig. 8 ) as a function of basin scale, streamflow magnitude, and seasonal period. Figure 6 demonstrates that there exists strong overestimation from TR and relatively strong underestimation from CM, which is

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E. Cattani, A. Merino, and V. Levizzani

, especially at the annual scale ( Vrieling et al. 2010 ), and inundation mapping ( Khan et al. 2011 ). Over data-rich areas, satellite-derived precipitation datasets play a considerable role in analyzing the physical processes behind extreme drought and flood events ( Dong et al. 2011 ). Precipitation is a key variable for evaluating climate change effects at different spatial scales ( Trenberth et al. 2003 ). Trenberth et al. (2014) have shown how the way precipitation is analyzed impacts results on

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F. Joseph Turk, R. Sikhakolli, P. Kirstetter, and S. L. Durden

constellation PMW-only satellites [e.g., the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) onboard the Global Change Observation Mission–Water (GCOM-W) spacecraft, operated by JAXA; Hou et al. 2014 ]. With its 65° inclination, GPM observes more land surface area relative to the predecessor Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and associated extremes in seasonality, cold and snow-covered surfaces, inland water, and forest and vegetation. From space, the associated radar surface backscatter and the

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

( Scott and Huff 1996 ; Notaro et al. 2013 ) and is therefore an integral component of the Great Lakes hydrologic budget. Lake-effect snow also impacts regional ecology ( Henne et al. 2007 ; Kolka et al. 2010 ) and exerts substantial socioeconomic effects in the Great Lakes basin (e.g., Changnon 1979 ; Schmidlin et al. 1992 ; Norton and Bolsenga 1993 ; Schmidlin 1993 ; Kunkel et al. 2002 ). While ground-based observations of shallow snowfall are plentiful in certain locations like the Great

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Abebe Sine Gebregiorgis, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang E. Hong, Nicholas J. Carr, Jonathan J. Gourley, Walt Petersen, and Yaoyao Zheng

is quantitatively described for each precipitation source. For the purpose of comparison across sensors, the seasonal accumulated error components were normalized by the number of grid boxes to compute a sensor error contribution at the gridbox scale. 4. Results and discussion The results of this study are organized into four sections: the temporal and spatial characteristics of the precipitation, correlation and scalar measures of precipitation estimates from different sensors, the spatial and

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

continents [ Gimeno et al. (2014) , and references therein]. Often they are associated with extreme precipitation, which can lead to flooding (e.g., Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ; Lavers and Villarini 2013 ) but can also alleviate or “bust” ongoing drought conditions ( Dettinger 2013 ). The important hydrological effects of ARs have been widely documented in the semiarid western United States. About 30%–50% of annual precipitation in this region fell during ARs over the period of water years

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

rate, and microphysics states are nearly identical regardless of seasons and years as long as the sampling covered the entire tropics, regardless of the day-to-day, seasonal, or interannual variability of tropical dynamics. Figure 5a shows a monthly time series of the difference in composite PR CFADs for land minus ocean at midlevels (i.e., 3 km for shallow warm and shallow cold, 3.5 km for midwarm and midcold, and 10 km for deep). There are some subtle but consistent land–ocean differences in the

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Hamed Ashouri, Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Kuo-lin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Dan Braithwaite

ELMSP basin, but TMPA outperforms PERSIANN-CDR in the SAVOY and SLOA4 basins in this regard. The large negative bias in stage IV radar data in ELMSP and SLOA4 is again observed in this analysis. The seasonal analysis (figures not presented) shows that the largest negative bias in stage IV–derived streamflow happens in the summer and fall seasons. Fig . 8. Long-term (2003–10) annual cycle from USGS observation and stage IV–, TMPA-, PERSIANN-, and PERSIANN-CDR-derived hydrographs for (top) SAVOY

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Clément Guilloteau, Rémy Roca, and Marielle Gosset

Benin, the 3-yr mean diurnal cycle of rain occurrence was also mapped over the West African region for TAPEER rain mask, CMORPH, GSMaP, and PERSIANN-CDR. Figure 12 shows maps of mean diurnal rain occurrences for 3-h windows. The diurnal cycles from the four products are in remarkably good agreement, showing again that averaging along one dimension (here time) tends to remove the random part of satellite fields. The salient patterns are orographic effects, with rainy systems forming over elevated

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