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Robert S. Arthur, Katherine A. Lundquist, Jeffrey D. Mirocha, and Fotini K. Chow

time. The initial horizontal velocity is set to zero in the model such that the atmosphere is quiescent before thermally driven flows develop. Fig . 6. (a) Potential temperature θ and (b) vapor mixing ratio from a radiosonde launched at the Playa site near Granite Mountain during MATERHORN Spring IOP 4. The model is forced by incoming solar radiation, moderated by slope and topographic shading effects. The model soil moisture is initialized as 0.15 m 3 m −3 based on the average seasonal

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Feimin Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

with land-cover conditions such as snow on the ground. In light of the outstanding problems around fog prediction and their association with inaccurate near-surface atmospheric conditions as well as the previous results from the MATERHORN-Fog program, it is our purpose to examine the effects of land surface parameters, especially albedo and snow depth, on the prediction of near-surface atmospheric conditions. In this study, a series of numerical simulations are conducted to elaborate the

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H. J. S. Fernando, E. R. Pardyjak, S. Di Sabatino, F. K. Chow, S. F. J. De Wekker, S. W. Hoch, J. Hacker, J. C. Pace, T. Pratt, Z. Pu, W. J. Steenburgh, C. D. Whiteman, Y. Wang, D. Zajic, B. Balsley, R. Dimitrova, G. D. Emmitt, C. W. Higgins, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Knievel, D. Lawrence, Y. Liu, D. F. Nadeau, E. Kit, B. W. Blomquist, P. Conry, R. S. Coppersmith, E. Creegan, M. Felton, A. Grachev, N. Gunawardena, C. Hang, C. M. Hocut, G. Huynh, M. E. Jeglum, D. Jensen, V. Kulandaivelu, M. Lehner, L. S. Leo, D. Liberzon, J. D. Massey, K. McEnerney, S. Pal, T. Price, M. Sghiatti, Z. Silver, M. Thompson, H. Zhang, and T. Zsedrovits

state. This differs from very stable boundary layers over flat terrain, where turbulence is highly intermittent in space and time ( Mahrt 1999 ). F ig . 1. Physical processes in complex terrain, illustrated on a topographic map of the DPG domain. The spatial and the elevation (shading) scales are shown below. Blue arrows represent nocturnal flows; red arrows represent daytime flows. An arbitrary direction has been used for illustration of synoptic effects (which typically varies from northwest to

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Jason C. Knievel

the system was based on version 3.2 of WRF, and in 2012 it was based on version 3.3.1 of WRF, which updated the urban land-use parameters and allows the Noah LSM to take seasonal roughness-length changes into account. The 4DWX-DPG has 30-, 10-, 3.3-, and 1.1-km one-way nested domains centered over DPG ( Liu et al. 2008 ; Fig. 2 ). The use of one-way nesting reflects its superiority over two-way nesting in unpublished test cases. The vertical spacing of the 36 half- η levels varies from ~30 m

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

. Note NCAR/TN–464+STR, 214 pp. [Available online at .] Crow, W. T. , Miralles D. G. , and Cosh M. H. , 2010 : A quasi-global evaluation system for satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 48 , 2516 – 2527 , doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2010.2040481 . Daniels, M. H. , Chow F. K. , and Poulos G. S. , 2006 : Effects of soil moisture initialization on simulations of atmospheric

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