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Peter G. Veals, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

west coast of Japan, where the Sea of Japan produces heavy snowfalls during the Asian winter monsoon, observe seasonal snowpacks of immense depth, with snow-water equivalent frequently exceeding 300 cm ( Yamaguchi et al. 2011 ). During individual lake-effect storms, however, the inland and orographic enhancement of LPE can vary widely. In some cases, the ratio of upland to lowland LPE can greatly exceed that expected from climatology, with a dramatic increase in LPE with elevation, whereas in

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W. James Steenburgh and Leah S. Campbell

cm (141 in.) in 10 days, and seasonal accumulations of 1173 cm (462 in.) on Tug Hill east of the lake ( Burt 2007 ; Veals and Steenburgh 2015 ). Conceptual models of LLAP systems often feature symmetrical land breezes from the flanking shorelines with low-level convergence, ascent, and snowband formation near the midlake axis [e.g., Lackmann (2011) , see his Fig. 9.19; Steenburgh (2014) , see his Fig. 5.5]. A variety of factors can, however, alter this depiction including the influence of

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Peter G. Veals and W. James Steenburgh

rarely develops significant ice cover, so freezing of the lake is not likely a major factor in the decrease, although the freezing of upstream lakes could have some influence. This seasonal cycle is consistent with other studies in the Great Lakes region (e.g., Ruhf and Cutrim 2003 ; Kristovich and Spinar 2005 ), but contrasts with that found over the Great Salt Lake of Utah where the lake-effect frequency features a bimodal distribution with peaks in the fall and spring ( Alcott et al. 2012

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Justin R. Minder, Theodore W. Letcher, Leah S. Campbell, Peter G. Veals, and W. James Steenburgh

1. Introduction and background The region east of Lake Ontario ( Fig. 1a ) receives some of the largest seasonal snowfall totals in eastern North America. Annual average snowfall exceeds 450 cm (e.g., Eichenlaub and Hodler 1979 ; Burt 2007 ; Hartnett et al. 2014 ; Veals and Steenburgh 2015 ). Much of this snowfall is produced by lake-effect storms. These storms can produce snowfall rates that are among the most intense in the world, including 30.5 cm in 1 h at Copenhagen, New York, and 129

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Daniel T. Eipper, George S. Young, Steven J. Greybush, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

temperature of the lifted parcel due to all diabatic processes, and is the potential temperature as a function of height, z (i.e., is the environmental profile of potential temperature). The first term on the right-hand side of Eq. (A1) includes the effects of both advective and diabatic environmental processes, while the second term captures the effect of diabatic processes within the parcel. Thus, the right-hand-side formulation of allows us to begin the process of separating the effects of

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Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, Peter G. Veals, Theodore W. Letcher, and Justin R. Minder

is to examine the enhancement of precipitation over Tug Hill during the lengthy lake-effect storm sampled during OWLeS intensive observing period 2b (IOP2b). Although Minder et al. (2015) provide a broad analysis of the effects of Tug Hill during this case, we focus here on intrastorm variations in precipitation enhancement over Tug Hill, their relationship to lake-effect precipitation mode, and the contrasting inland transition in storm characteristics responsible for periods of high and low

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Daniel T. Eipper, Steven J. Greybush, George S. Young, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

the thermodynamic structure of each band and environmental baroclinity. The density potential temperature θ ρ accounts for the effects of both water vapor and hydrometeors on potential temperature; the formula for its computation is provided in Markowski and Richardson [2010 , their Eq. (2.22)]. We chose to position the cross sections over the approximate landfall location and inland portion of each band, where greater human impacts occur. Specifically, the cross sections were generated every 0

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Karen A. Kosiba, Joshua Wurman, Kevin Knupp, Kyle Pennington, and Paul Robinson

and maintenance, kinematic characteristics, effects on microphysics, and contributions to boundary layer momentum fluxes. To put the observations from IOP4 and IOP7 in context with other LLAP snowbands, the misovortex characteristics of all the LLAP snowbands sampled during OWLeS are examined in section 4 . Section 5 discusses the relevance of the results. 2. Data a. Mobile radar data The Center for Severe Weather Research (CSWR) deployed three Doppler on Wheels (DOW) mobile radars ( Wurman

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Seth Saslo and Steven J. Greybush

1. Introduction In the Great Lakes region of the United States, lake-effect snow (LES) is a common cold-season mesoscale phenomenon, often accompanied by intense snowfall rates and accumulations, which accounts for a large portion of the seasonal precipitation ( Jiusto and Kaplan 1972 ; Niziol 1987 ; Kristovich and Steve 1995 ; Veals and Steenburgh 2015 ). LES occurs when moisture and sensible heat flux from a warm lake surface destabilize a cold Arctic air mass above ( Kristovich and Laird

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Philip T. Bergmaier, Bart Geerts, Leah S. Campbell, and W. James Steenburgh

horizontal winds. The effects of aircraft motion are automatically removed during postprocessing, but horizontal wind contamination in the event of aircraft roll must be corrected for separately by assuming a horizontal wind profile. For this study, such a profile has been obtained from a sounding taken during the flight at 2018 UTC from Oswego, New York, 2 ~5 km south of the LLAP band ( Fig. 1 ). The use of other soundings taken at the same time did not produce any significant differences in the

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