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Olivia Martius and Heini Wernli

observed between 1958 and 2002 in conjunction with a positive North Atlantic Oscillation index during the last decades of the twentieth century ( Isotta et al. 2008 ). Although jet streams in the subtropics appear as a prominent climatological feature (e.g., Koch et al. 2006 ), their location, size, and amplitude are characterized by variability on synoptic time scales. The jet variability on the climatological time scale results from subtle forcing effects of slow-varying boundary conditions (e

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Franziska Teubler and Michael Riemer

pressure systems in the lower troposphere, reflecting the well-known baroclinic nature of RWPs. Since both PV and potential temperature θ are conserved for adiabatic motion, displacement of PV contours is governed to first order by PV advection on isentropic surfaces when diabatic, frictional, and nonhydrostatic effects are small. The partition and the physical interpretation of the advective PV tendencies, complemented by the examination of diabatic PV tendencies, will be at the heart of our

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