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Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

°–70°W), and Atlantic Ocean (Atl) (25°N–25°S, 70°W–15°E). The tropical land regions were divided into seven major regions: India (5°–25°N, 75°–90°E), East Asia (15°–25°N, 105°–125°E), Maritime Continent (10°S–10°N, 95°–145°E), Australia (20°–10°S, 125°–145°E), South America (10°S–10°N, 75°–50°W), Argentina (25°–15°S, 75°–50°W), and West Africa (0°–15°N, 17°W–10°E). The land regions typify different regimes of tropical continental convection ( Xu and Zipser 2012 ) but are not seasonally distinguished

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Yi-Hung Kuo, Kathleen A. Schiro, and J. David Neelin

originating from the extratropics ( section S6 ). The observed sharp increase in precipitation as CWV exceeds critical has been explained by entraining plume calculations, through which the deep convective conditional instability can be estimated. As previously demonstrated ( Holloway and Neelin 2009 ; Schiro et al. 2016 ; Kuo et al. 2017 ), CWV serves as a measure of the impact of environment moisture on plume buoyancy, and hence the instability, through the effects of mixing, as indicated by the

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Ángel F. Adames and Yi Ming

. Additionally, it is clear that TRMM precipitation exhibits a larger variance than the model does. This may be related to the inability of coarse-resolution GCMs to fully represent the topographic features of South Asia, thus not adequately representing their effects on precipitation. Fig . 1. Mean JJAS 850-hPa geopotential height (shading) and horizontal flow (arrows) for (a) AM4.0 and (b) ERA-Interim. The longest arrows correspond to winds of ~15 m s −1 . White areas in (a) correspond to regions where the

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