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Chuntao Liu, Earle R. Williams, Edward J. Zipser, and Gary Burns

convectively active at 1400–1500 UTC. c. Seasonal variation of diurnal cycles of electric field The major features of the seasonal variation of the global electrical circuit are well established ( Adlerman and Williams 1996 ; Burns et al. 2005 ; Markson 2007 ). It is useful to compare the diurnal variations of quantities of interest to the Carnegie curve during different seasons. Here we utilize the observations of fair weather electric field in different seasons at Vostok, Antarctica, ( Burns et al

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Gerald M. Heymsfield, Lin Tian, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Lihua Li, and Stephen Guimond

flight line, so these differences should be noted in subsequent discussion. LeMone et al. (1994) examined the effects of filtering on their vertical velocity data to identify updrafts and downdrafts and their conclusions do not seem to recommend filtering. b. Convection cases Table 1 lists various NASA field campaigns from 1995 to 2005 during which the EDOP radar on the ER-2 flew above strong convection. These campaigns cover a variety of oceanic and land regions. Further information on the

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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

and decent and by signal saturation/attenuation effects. The SAL sits atop the MBL at about 1 km and appears prominently in the altitude range of 1–6 km in orange, green, and blue colors. Note that as the SAL emerges from the African coast it is undercut by a cool marine layer causing its base to gradually rise as it is advected further to the west. A good example of this feature can be seen in Fig. 1 of Twohy et al. (2009) . As was seen in Fig. 3a , low-level convection in the southern region

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Robert Cifelli, Timothy Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, Nick Guy, Edward J. Zipser, Jon Zawislak, and Robert Holzworth

West Africa are sparse, the above studies have generally relied on various combinations of models and satellite brightness temperature [outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)] data. More recently, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) data have been used to examine AEWs and precipitation characteristics over seasonal time scales and large geographic regions. Specific case studies of AEWs have been rare, especially at the mesoscale. However, case study analyses are

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