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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

500 hPa ( ω 500) for the December–February season in Figs. 6 and 7 , respectively. Heating from the deep systems correlates much better (−0.85 to −0.87) with ω 500 compared to that with SST. On the other hand, shallow congestus heating is not directly related to the effects of large-scale subsidence, which is consistent with what was implied from the heating–SST relationship in Fig. 5 . It is also interesting to find there is no significant seasonal dependency in these environment

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

structures for the MJO life cycle will be conducted in a follow-up study based on extended period of datasets. The organization of this paper is as follows: The datasets employed in this study are described in section 2 . In section 3 , we present the seasonal climatology of the heating structures over the global tropics based on both the TRMM estimates and two ECMWF model systems (hereafter EC models for brevity). Then the temporal variability of the heating structures, as well as partition of total

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

. Rev. , 120 , 303 – 325 . Rossow , W. B. , and A. A. Lacis , 1990 : Global, seasonal cloud variations from satellite radiance measurements. Part II: Cloud properties and radiative effects. J. Climate , 3 , 1204 – 1253 . Rossow , W. B. , and Y-C. Zhang , 1995 : Calculation of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 2. Validation and first results. J. Geophys. Res. , 100 , 1167 – 1197 . Rutan , D. A. , F. G. Rose , N

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

:// ). Because there was better sounding coverage and data continuity over the NESA region (i.e., 17°–22°N, 110°–120°E) from 6 May to 20 June 1998, average gridded LH data fields from this region and for this period are compared with the TRMM CSH and TMI 2A12 LH fields. 3. LH variability in the South Asian monsoon region Figure 1 shows the vertically integrated December–February (DJF) and June–August (JJA) seasonal averages of TRMM CSH LH for the 1998–2006 period. The most noticeable characteristic is the

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

effects of mesoscale convective systems ( Chen and Houze 1997 ). Over land, daytime heating exerts the primary control on the diurnal cycle of precipitation; however, factors influencing the development and organization of convection—surface fluxes, surface heterogeneity, low-level jets, orography, convective downdrafts, etc.—are varied and complex, complicating its treatment in models ( Betts and Jakob 2002 ; Bechtold et al. 2004 : Khairoutdinov and Randall 2006 ). Observations prior to NAME have

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

between layer-integrated heating and net vertical precipitation flux in each observation column, only a scaling of a composite model heating profile by the precipitation flux is performed to allow for the effects of horizontal advection between convective and stratiform regions. These horizontal advection effects are represented, at least implicitly, by the cloud-resolving model simulations. In the present study, the application of the steady-state precipitation principle follows the work of SH04

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