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Robin J. T. Weber, Alberto Carrassi, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes

ranges of several weeks, months, or perhaps years. Where the accuracy of numerical weather predictions are determined by error in the initial conditions, centennial climate projection evaluations are determined by boundary conditions such as atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, while the signature of the initial condition is lost ( Hawkins and Sutton 2009 ). Seasonal-to-decadal prediction spans time horizons of up to approximately 10 years, falling between numerical weather prediction and

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Stefano Migliorini

study is provided. Section 4 discusses the effects of the chosen forecast and observation error as well as of the observation operator specifications on the signal-to-noise characteristics of the satellite instrument, while section 5 provides details on the selection of optimal channels for atmospheric humidity estimation in all-sky conditions as resulting from the use of the selection method described in this paper, including a list of the selected channels. Finally, a summary of the work and

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James A. Cummings and Ole Martin Smedstad

HYCOM grid is on a Mercator projection from 78.64°S to 47°N and north of this it employs an Arctic dipole patch, where the poles are shifted over land to avoid a singularity at the North Pole. This gives a midlatitude (polar) horizontal resolution of approximately 7 km (3.5 km). This version employs 32 hybrid vertical coordinate surfaces with potential density referenced to 2000 m, and it includes the effects of thermobaricity ( Chassignet et al. 2003 ). Vertical coordinates can be isopycnals

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Mark Buehner, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Alain Beaulne, Cécilien Charette, Louis Garand, Sylvain Heilliette, Ervig Lapalme, Stéphane Laroche, Stephen R. Macpherson, Josée Morneau, and Ayrton Zadra

both winter and summer periods, Buehner et al. (2013) demonstrated that forecasts from 4DEnVar analyses have either similar or better scores in the tropical troposphere and the winter extratropics than the forecasts from 4DVar analyses. In contrast, the medium-range forecast scores for the summer extratropics with 4DEnVar are either similar to or worse than those of 4DVar in the troposphere. The seasonal differences in extratropical medium-range forecast quality are largest in the southern

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