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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

motions and a variety of internal waves. Further efforts can explore the role of strong seasonality, the distinct geography of postmonsoonal freshwater inflow and associated enhanced submesoscale activity ( Sengupta et al. 2016 ; Sarkar et al. 2016 ; Ramachandran et al. 2018 ). Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Earth Sciences, New Delhi, for support through the National Monsoon Mission, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune. JS would also like to acknowledge

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

solar energy is absorbed and that heat has to be redistributed vertically. Acknowledgments This research is part of the PISTON project: Propagation of Intra-Seasonal Oscillations, funded by the Office of Naval Research. Shipboard measurements described in this paper were taken aboard RV Thomas G. Thompson . Craig Van Appledorn, Kerry Latham, and Pavan Vutukur designed and constructed SurfOtter and the turbulence instruments it housed. Sally Warner processed the Chameleon dataset. Meteorological

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

output ( Gadgil and Rupa Kumar 2006 ), lending significant social relevance to the problem of understanding air–sea interaction and near-surface ocean dynamics that influence the Bay’s SST. The Bay’s physical oceanography is characterized by two major features. First, its circulation reverses seasonally under the influence of the Indian Ocean monsoon—the seasonal reversal of winds north of approximately 10°S in the Indian Ocean basin. Second, it receives an immense amount of freshwater—more than 50

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

eddy variability ( Schott et al. 2009 ; Dandapat and Chakraborty 2016 ; Mahadevan et al. 2016a , b ). Highly dynamic heat and moisture fluxes drive the ISOs in the BoB and bring in seasonal and complex subseasonal variability ( Goswami et al. 2016 ; Weller et al. 2016 ; Sanchez-Franks et al. 2018 ). The ISOs of the BoB can be categorized into three major components of atmospherically driven coupled air–sea oscillations: the 30–90-day signal associated with the monsoon ISO (MISO) and Madden

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

cumulus parameterization, such as the modification of the triggering function, to see if the improvement of the diurnal cycle of land conditions can improve the local circulation. Experiments with higher horizontal resolution can also be carried out to investigate the effects when local topography is better resolved. The present results also give prominence to the importance of land–ocean–convection interactions and coastal convection systems when simulating the precipitation during the seasonal

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

considered the MJO to have consistent characteristics throughout the entire year ( Hendon and Salby 1994 ; Wheeler and Hendon 2004 ). However, it has been shown that the consideration of the seasonality of the MJO is important both for developing real-time proxies for its location and magnitude and for process-based studies ( Kikuchi et al. 2012 ; Kiladis et al. 2014 ; Jiang et al. 2018 ). Within this study, we focus on cross-scale interactions within the boreal summer MJO, which has been labeled with

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

explicitly been discussed in the literature, Figs. 4 and 10 of Neena et al. (2017) and Fig. 3 of Sobel et al. (2010) imply such interactions are possible and serve as motivation for this work to explicitly understand the impact topography has on the diurnal cycle of precipitation during BSISO suppressed versus active conditions. Along with the effects of topography over the MC on MJO evolution, previous work has suggested that the diurnal cycle (DC) of precipitation (DCP) over the MC has important

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

for a number of reasons including ship-wake contamination, the effects of surface gravity waves, the finite blanking distance of the ADCP, and bubbles associated with wave breaking (e.g., Marmorino et al. 1999 ; Gemmrich and Farmer 2004 ). Overcoming the challenges of obtaining near-surface velocity measurements requires purposely designed platforms and, especially for the study of DWLs, a sufficiently high-vertical-resolution ADCP. Recent studies have attached ADCPs to either buoys or

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

generated by massive seasonal freshwater fluxes, mainly from major rivers in the north, and intense precipitation during the southwest monsoon. The shallow freshwater cap affects the evolution of the sea surface temperature (SST; Jaeger and Mahadevan 2018 ) and the upper-ocean’s heat content ( Shroyer et al. 2016 ; Mahadevan et al. 2016 ), both of which can alter the air–sea fluxes and, hence, affect the monsoon dynamics. The Air–Sea Interaction Regional Initiative (ASIRI; Lucas et al. 2014

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

scale interactions between the KWs and the diurnal cycle (DC) over the major islands. For those KWs that arrive in phase with the local DC, the KW-associated precipitation is enhanced by 3 times and the chance of successful KWs traversing the MC is 40% higher, when compared to the KWs that arrive at other times of the day. While the results of Baranowski et al. (2016b) emphasize more the effects of the local DC over the islands on the passing KW, the modulation of the local DC by the KW, which is

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