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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

effect in producing the monsoon rainfall than the monsoon depressions. 2. Asymmetric seasonal transitions and terrain effects The boreal spring [March–May (MAM)] and fall monsoon regimes [September–November (SON)] may also be delineated from the TRMM Precipitation Radar and QuikSCAT scatterometer wind data. Because these are during transitional seasons, the analysis needs be done differently from the method used to partition boreal summer and winter monsoon regimes. The spring and fall regimes are

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Guoxiong Wu and Yimin Liu

.1007/s00376-009-9045-z . Yanai , M. , and G.-X. Wu , 2006 : Effects of the Tibetan Plateau. The Asian Monsoon , B. Wang et al., Eds., Springer, 513–549 . Yanai , M. , S. Esbensen , and J.-H. Chu , 1973 : Determination of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets . J. Atmos. Sci. , 30 , 611 – 627 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1973)030<0611:DOBPOT>2.0.CO;2 . Yanai , M. , C. F. Li , and Z. S. Song , 1992 : Seasonal heating of the Tibetan

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martina Krämer, Anna Luebke, Phil Brown, Daniel J. Cziczo, Charmaine Franklin, Paul Lawson, Ulrike Lohmann, Greg McFarquhar, Zbigniew Ulanowski, and Kristof Van Tricht

). Cirrus also play a vital role in Earth’s energy budget through their effects on the surface albedo and generation of latent heat released in regions of ice crystal growth. Cirrus clouds are also an important component of the planetary energy budget because of their large spatial extent and their strong interaction with radiation fields, both at solar wavelengths (visible light, below about 0.8 microns) and infrared ( Ramaswamy and Detwiler 1986 ). The net radiation (infrared plus solar) is related to

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

with season. These results indicate that changes in the vertical distribution of clouds on seasonal and interannual time scales have important impacts on the redistribution of heating within the troposphere, and simply reproducing the average net surface and TOA effects of clouds in models will not capture essential cloud feedbacks on the general circulation. Fig . 20-11. Characteristic heating rate profiles for single-layer liquid-only and mixed-phase clouds, where the clouds have LWP between 50

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

indicate the trend attributed to ODSs alone. [From WMO (2014 ).] Fig . 27-21. Satellite observations showing the depletion of global total ozone beginning in the 1980s. Annual averages of global ozone are compared with the climatological averages from the period 1964 to 1980 before the ozone hole appeared. Seasonal and solar effects have been removed from the observational dataset. On average, global ozone decreased each year between 1980 and 1990. The depletion worsened for a few years after 1991 due

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Steven K. Esbensen, Jan-Hwa Chu, Wen-wen Tung, and Robert G. Fovell

cumulus convection on the vorticity field in the tropics. Part II: Interpretation . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 60 , 411 – 424 . Yanai , M. , C. Li , and Z. Song , 1992 : Seasonal heating of the Tibetan Plateau and its effects on the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 70 , 319 – 351 . Yanai , M. , B. Chen , and W.-W. Tung , 2000 : The Madden–Julian oscillation observed during the TOGA-COARE IOP: Global view . J. Atmos. Sci. , 57 , 2374 – 2396 , doi

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. The achievement of these programmatic objectives should lead to the improvement of the treatment of atmospheric radiation in climate models, explicitly recognizing the crucial role of clouds in influencing this radiation and the consequent need for accurate description of the presence and properties of clouds in climate models. There are key scientific issues that must be resolved in order to achieve these objectives. The primary scientific questions are as follows: What are the direct effects of

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David S. Battisti, Daniel J. Vimont, and Benjamin P. Kirtman

McPhaden et al. (1998) ] and ushered in intermediate complexity models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system that led to an understanding of the essential aspects of the canonical ENSO cycle, including the spatial structure and amplitude of the warm and cold (El Niño and La Niña) events, the period between warm events, and the seasonality in the variance of ENSO. In turn, analyses of these models led to the view that ENSO is an intrinsic mode of the dynamically coupled atmosphere–ocean system in the

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David Randall, Charlotte DeMott, Cristiana Stan, Marat Khairoutdinov, James Benedict, Rachel McCrary, Katherine Thayer-Calder, and Mark Branson

particular, the simulations showed propagating convective systems that resembled the Madden–Julian oscillation 1 (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ). The MJO is an eastward-propagating tropical disturbance that spans thousands of kilometers in the zonal direction, with an irregular period in the range 40–50 days. Despite its large spatial and temporal scales, and its powerful effects on tropical weather, the MJO has proven very difficult to simulate with GCMs (e.g., Lin et al. 2006 ; Kim et al

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

’ systematic investigation and inferences have proven to be pivotal in shaping the modern-day thinking and computational modeling of the climate effects due to CO 2 radiative forcing. Advances in theoretical developments in classical and, later on, in quantum physics through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries laid the groundwork concerning light (photon) absorption/emission processes and their linkage to the laws of thermodynamics. This led to the enunciation of basic concepts in the nineteenth

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