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Jason Schatz and Christopher J. Kucharik

focus in particular on seasonal variation in urban climate effects. The analysis will proceed in three parts: 1) spatial patterns and processes over time, 2) daily variation in UHI intensity, and 3) seasonal patterns and drivers of UHI intensity. 2. Methods a. Study area Madison is a city of 233 000 in the north-central United States (43°N, 89°W) with an estimated 2012 urban agglomeration population of 407 000 ( Demographia 2013 ). It has a humid-continental climate (Köppen classification: Dfa

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G. R. McGregor, M. Cox, Y. Cui, Z. Cui, M. K. Davey, R. F. Graham, and A. Brookshaw

-range predictions are to be used as the basis for issuing early warnings about impending harsh winters and their related health effects, then, to be effective, a requirement of such warning systems will be availability of a well-designed and well-integrated set of implementable intervention measures ( Ebi et al. 2004 ). Without these measures, well-intentioned winter climate/health warnings will be rendered ineffective and the reduction of the burden of disease attributable to intraseasonal to seasonal climate

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Matthew G. Slocum, William J. Platt, Brian Beckage, Steve L. Orzell, and Wayne Taylor

. 2007a ; Slocum et al. 2007 ). Superimposed on these seasonal cycles are cycles of longer periodicity generated by climatic teleconnections. One of the most important teleconnections for fire is El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), whose effects on wildfires are conveyed by accentuating or diminishing the effects of seasonal climate ( Williams and Karoly 1999 ; Chu et al. 2002 ; Le Page et al. 2008 ). In south Florida, for example, the cool La Niña phase of ENSO intensifies drought during the dry

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D. W. Shin, G. A. Baigorria, Y-K. Lim, S. Cocke, T. E. LaRow, James J. O’Brien, and James W. Jones

1. Introduction If we have a reliable seasonal climate forecast at the beginning of the crop growing season, we can estimate the upcoming season crop yield amount reasonably well using a dynamic crop model. This would be very beneficial in helping farmers and/or crop decision makers to prepare for the crop growing season ( Jones et al. 2000 ; Hansen 2002 ; Cabrera et al. 2009 ). Farmers may take certain mitigation measures (e.g., changing planting date, adopting different crop variety) or

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Gilles Molinié, Davide Ceresetti, Sandrine Anquetin, Jean Dominique Creutin, and Brice Boudevillain

heavy rainfall situations. Previous research indicates that a potential climatological relationship between the rainfall and the topography depends on the temporal scale of analysis. At the daily time scale or longer, a rainfall–relief relationship seems to exist. The rainfall climatology of Alpine regions of Frei and Schär (1998) locates the highest annual and seasonal rainfall depth above the mountain ranges. At the event time scale, Alpert (1986) , over the Judean Mountains in Israel, Michaud

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Thomas Loridan, C. S. B. Grimmond, Brian D. Offerle, Duick T. Young, Thomas E. L. Smith, Leena Järvi, and Fredrik Lindberg

location ( K clear ). This is obtained from ( Crawford and Duchon 1999 ) where I EX is the extraterrestrial (or “top” of the atmosphere) insolation, Z is the solar zenith angle, and τ is the atmospheric transmissivity parameterized from measured surface pressure, temperature, and relative humidity to represent the combined effects of Rayleigh scattering, absorption by permanent gases and water vapor, and absorption–scattering by aerosols. Such a representation of cloud coverage is not applicable

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Amir Shabbar, Walter Skinner, and Mike D. Flannigan

amount of effort required to suppress a fire. The DSR is derived from daily measurements of precipitation, air temperature, humidity, and wind. The DSR, when averaged over a season, is termed the seasonal severity rating (SSR) index. The SSR can be used as an objective measure of the fire weather/climate from season to season and from region to region. On a routine basis, Natural Resources Canada (2009) uses SSR as a management tool for historical analysis as well as for operational long

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Theodore L. Allen, Scott Curtis, and Douglas W. Gamble

2008 ; etc.)—in particular, sea surface temperature ( Wang et al. 2008 ) and the Caribbean low-level jet ( Wang 2007 ; Muñoz et al. 2008 ). However, there is a paucity of research on the biophysical response to the MSD. Incorporating vegetative response with other current atmospheric/oceanic research provides a more complete understanding through an earth integrated-systems approach to the MSD and can be connected to societal effects as experienced by farmers. The normalized difference vegetation

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H. Fuenzalida and B. Rosenblüth

72g $OURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME25Distortion Effects of the Anomaly Method of Removing Seasonal or Diurnal Variations from Climatological Time Series H. FUENZALIDA AND B. ROSENBL1DTHD~partamento de Geofisica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago(Manuscript received 18 February 1985, in final form 26 August 1985)ABSTRACT In the environmental sciences

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Verónica Torralba, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, Dave MacLeod, Isadora Christel, and Melanie Davis

been made in practice. In recent years the skill of climate predictions has significantly improved ( Doblas-Reyes et al. 2013 ), however. For instance, seasonal forecast systems (i.e., those that provide information for periods ranging from a month to slightly longer than a year into the future) are now providing skillful forecasts for extratropical regions where no substantial skill was found before ( Clark et al. 2017 ; Dunstone et al. 2016 ; Scaife et al. 2014 ). This will promote their

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