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Jeremy L. Weiss, Christopher L. Castro, and Jonathan T. Overpeck

2000s drought was significantly greater in magnitude and extent than during the 1950s drought. Warmer temperatures during the 2000s drought, coupled with low precipitation, seemingly drove higher vegetation water stress, increased susceptibility to insect infestations, and more plant mortality than during the relatively cooler and drier 1950s drought. d. Seasonality and effects of warmer temperatures during drought in the Southwest Although it is not clear if anthropogenic climate change has

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Hyodae Seo, Shang-Ping Xie, Raghu Murtugudde, Markus Jochum, and Arthur J. Miller

Sivakumar (2003) also discuss the formation mechanism and seasonal cycle of the BL in the northern Indian Ocean. They showed that the build up of the BL during summertime becomes most prominent by February in the following year, reaching a maximum thickness of 50 m. The boreal winter is the period when the hydrological forcing generates its largest freshening effects through the river discharge and local rainfall. The BLT subsequently diminishes from February to a minimum in May before onset of the

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Lawrence S. Jackson and Piers M. Forster

1. Introduction Existing research has identified factors such as solar radiation and cloud cover as influential for diurnal temperature range (DTR) over the global land surface, but how comprehensively do they account for the observed seasonal and geographic variation? This study describes the seasonal and geographic variations in DTR using empirical regression relationships with a selection of key meteorological and surface parameters. The aim is to quantify the relationships they have with

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Karl Stein, Niklas Schneider, Axel Timmermann, and Fei-Fei Jin

explain the seasonal synchronization of ENSO events in terms of the effects of the eastern equatorial Pacific annual cycle on the stability of the equatorial Pacific coupled ocean–atmosphere system. The annual cycle of the eastern tropical Pacific can be well characterized by the seasonal movement of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which resides north of the equator and stretches across the Pacific basin. This is because the large-scale atmospheric motion of the tropical Pacific corresponds

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Yongkang Xue, Fernando De Sales, Ratko Vasic, C. Roberto Mechoso, Akio Arakawa, and Stephen Prince

global and seasonal assessment of VBP effects on the water cycle. The assessment was conducted at the global scale (i.e., is not limited to one or two regions) in recognition of the strong interconnections between regional climates, and covers all seasons (i.e., is not limited to the summer). The impact at long temporal scales, however, is not addressed in this study. VBPs include (but are not limited to) radiative transfer in the canopy, moisture exchange between soil layers and extraction by roots

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Daniel M. Gilford and Susan Solomon

; Gettelman et al. 2004 ; Randel et al. 2006 ; Solomon et al. 2010 ; Maycock et al. 2011 , 2014 ; Dessler et al. 2013 ; Gilford et al. 2016 ; Wang et al. 2016 ). In this study we investigate the radiative effects of water vapor and ozone seasonal cycles in the tropical lower stratosphere in detail. In particular, we explore radiative sensitivities to the overlying vertical structures of these seasonal cycles along with their latitudinal variability. Tropical lower-stratospheric water vapor displays

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Shang-Ping Xie

NOVEMBER 1996 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 2945Effects of Seasonal Solar Forcing on Latitudinal Asymmetry of the ITCZ SHANG-PING KIEGraduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan12 February 1996 and 1 May 1996ABSTRACT A coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the effects of seasonal variation in

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Meire L. C. Berbet and Marcos Heil Costa

seasonal variability, with higher values in the dry period (June–November), and lower values in the rainy period (December–May). On the other hand, the pasture albedo presents a stronger variability throughout the year, especially in Ji-Paraná, Rondonia, Brazil ( Fig. 1b ), with albedo values decreasing in the dry season, a consequence of the decrease in the leaf area index in the dry period ( Wright et al. 1996 ). In Fig. 1 , the combined effects of four of the most important sources of variability

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William B. Rossow and Andrew A. Lacis

1204 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 3Global, Seasonal Cloud Variations from Satellite Radiance Measurements. Part II: Cloud Properties and Radiative Effects WILLIAM B. ROSSOW AND ANDREW A. LACISNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York(Manuscript received 14 December 1989, in final form 25 April 1990)ABSTRACT Global, daily, visible

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Robert B. Scott, Christina L. Holland, and Terrence M. Quinn

skeletons will arise from dating errors, errors in characterization of the Sr/Ca (including both measurement errors and the effects of heterogeneity of the Sr/Ca within the coral skeleton), and errors in the calibration resulting from limitations in the reference instrumental data and/or variations of the calibration on long time scales. We paid particular attention to the latter, which may result from gradual, non-SST influences on Sr/Ca that are dominated by seasonal SST variations but accumulate on

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