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Kingtse C. Mo, Lindsey N. Long, and Jae-Kyung E. Schemm

spells. In the following sections, we will explore why some models are able to capture the observed FOC of persistent extreme events and some do not. 4. Seasonal cycle and persistence 4.1. P climatology and seasonal cycle Even though drought and persistent wet spells are defined as persistent P anomalies, a model still needs to have a realistic climatology to simulate drought. This is because the east–west contrast is a part of the seasonal P climatology. The western interior region is a dry

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Daniel J. McEvoy, Justin L. Huntington, John T. Abatzoglou, and Laura M. Edwards

–332 , doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000433 . Vicente-Serrano , S. M. , and Coauthors , 2011b : Effects of warming processes on droughts and water resources in the NW Iberian Peninsula (1930-2006) . Climate Res. , 48 , 203 – 212 . Weiss , J. L. , C. L. Castro , and J. T. Overpeck , 2009 : Distinguished pronounced droughts in the southwestern United States: Seasonality and effects of warmer temperatures . J. Climate , 22 , 5918 – 5932 . Wells , N. , S. Goddard , and M. J. Hayes

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Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Santiago Beguería, Jorge Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jesús Julio Camarero, Juan I. López-Moreno, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Jesús Revuelto, Enrique Morán-Tejeda, and Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo

1. Introduction Drought is among the most complex climatic phenomena affecting society and the environment ( Wilhite 1993 ). The root of this complexity is related to the difficulty of quantifying drought severity since we identify a drought by its effects or impacts on different types of systems (agriculture, water resources, ecology, forestry, economy, etc.), but there is not a physical variable we can measure to quantify droughts. Thus, droughts are difficult to pinpoint in time and space

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Richard R. Heim Jr. and Michael J. Brewer

effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. Since ICID-I, increasing attention has been paid to how a changing climate may affect the frequency and intensity of drought. In a globally warmed world, the warming can intensify hydrological droughts and alter runoff timing from snowmelt, affecting water management decisions ( Barnett et al. 2008 ; Cayan et al. 2010 ), and drought

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Di Long, Bridget R. Scanlon, D. Nelun Fernando, Lei Meng, and Steven M. Quiring

(SHP) ( F statistic, p = 0.28 CHP and p = 0.78 SHP). However, there is a significant decreasing trend across the NHP at −1 day decade −1 and the anomaly decreasing at −3% decade −1 ( Figure 4 ). The spatial mean of CWD over all subregions of the HP does not show any significant decreasing trend for the study period. CDD and CWD are not closely correlated, which means that a higher CDD value does not mean a lower value of CWD. CDD can be indicative of effects on vegetation and ecosystems, and

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