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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

methodology used here is an alternative for the previous depictions and characterization of the NHJ mean latitudinal position and variability and complements the jet stream indices that Woollings et al. (2014) developed for the North Atlantic sector. A bottom-up approach is applied, informed by the seasonal and spatial coherence in NHJ latitudinal position that allows us to define seasonally and longitudinally explicit indices of NHJ latitudinal variability. In pursuing the diagnosis of NHJ climatology

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Trevor Lewis and Walter Skinner

heat of freezing and thawing of moisture in the ground. Inversion of borehole temperatures to obtain estimates of past ground surface temperatures is an extremely good technique to obtain both the long-term-average GST and variations in the past GST at a particular site. However, to infer regional GSTs and regional surface air temperatures (SATs), local effects must be evaluated. Changes in the GST at a site may be caused by spatial variations in slope and elevation, as well as spatial and temporal

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Lunche Wang, Wei Gong, Yingying Ma, and Miao Zhang

of PAR, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), and light use efficiencies (LUE) and extend the lagged cross-correlation analysis method to study the delayed and continuous effects of seasonal climate on NPP for different kinds of vegetation with a temporal resolution of 16 days in Wuhan. 2. Study area and data 2.1. Study area Geographically situated between 29°58′–31°22′N and 113°41′–115°05′E, Wuhan lies in central China (Hubei Province) with the Yangtze River and Han

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

. Previous studies likewise point to minor effects on seasonal mean precipitation (e.g., Roy et al. 2007 ; Quintanar and Mahmood 2012 ; Seneviratne et al. 2013 ; Winchester et al. 2017 ); however, comparison with observations suggests that climate models are not able to fully reproduce the soil-moisture precipitation feedback ( Taylor et al. 2012 ), although it cannot be ruled out that this is because of the coarse resolution in the investigated global climate models. The current study suggests that

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Tristan Ballard, Richard Seager, Jason E. Smerdon, Benjamin I. Cook, Andrea J. Ray, Balaji Rajagopalan, Yochanan Kushnir, Jennifer Nakamura, and Naomi Henderson

Figure 11 , of the projected changes in precipitation from runs of the 37 models. In both the northwest and southeast PPR in winter and spring, there is considerable model agreement (in the sense that a clear majority of models have wet trends and the multimodel mean trend is also to wetter conditions) that precipitation will increase. In contrast, the models suggest little change in summer and fall. These seasonal changes in P are why the effects of warming generate widespread negative changes in

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Edson E. Sano, Laerte G. Ferreira, and Alfredo R. Huete

soybean and corn). Nowadays, cerrado is the main agricultural province in Brazil and is the country’s most severely threatened biome, requiring a prompt, continuous, and precise mapping and monitoring. To date, the majority of the studies related to the cerrado’s seasonal and land-cover monitoring have been based on optical remote sensing technology. França and Setzer ( França and Setzer 1998 ) as well as Mantovani and Pereira ( Mantovani and Pereira 1998 ) focused on the use of Advanced Very High

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Kyle C. McDonald, John S. Kimball, Eni Njoku, Reiner Zimmermann, and Maosheng Zhao

analysis was applied on a grid-cell-by-grid-cell basis to quantify the statistical significance of temporal trends in spring thaw timing over the 14-yr period. Areas of permanent ice and snow, bare ground, and sparse vegetation cover were identified using a 1-km resolution, global land-cover classification ( Friedl et al. 2002 ) and were masked from further analysis to isolate the relationships between seasonal thawing, vegetation growing season dynamics, and associated effects of net photosynthesis on

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Miles G. Logsdon, Robin Weeks, Milton Smith, Jeffery E. Richey, Victoria Ballester, and Yosio Shimabukoro

1. Introduction Information on how the surface energy balance of the Amazon basin changes on seasonal and interannual time scales is crucial to understanding how the basin responds to climatic and, ultimately, anthropogenic forcing. The determination of spectral changes and their translation into biophysical properties over time in the Tropics, however, faces a number of difficulties. Daily remotely sensed data cannot be used directly to determine physical aspects of surface changes due to

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E.-H. Yoo, D. Chen, Chunyuan Diao, and Curtis Russell

robust spatiotemporal model that predicts mosquito population dynamics is a challenging task because mosquito abundance is determined by complex interactions among weather, land-use, and vegetation coverage as well as the blood meal availability and intensity of mosquito control efforts. Our understanding of the effects of weather and environmental factors is limited, and the availability of data at a fine spatial and temporal resolution is not guaranteed. Data contaminated by measurement error may

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D. M. Nover, J. W. Witt, J. B. Butcher, T. E. Johnson, and C. P. Weaver

effects models with restricted maximum likelihood, at seasonal and annual intervals with the lme4 package in R ( R Core Team 2014 ; Bates et al. 2014 ). Mixed effects models (i.e., hierarchical or multilevel models) are useful when data are nested within groups or categories, such as the climate models in this study ( Zuur et al. 2009 ). These models contain both fixed and random effects, where the fixed effects evaluate overall, population-level relationships, and the random effects account for and

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