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Enrique R. Vivoni

effects of seasonal greening on the basin water balance is a significant challenge in ecohydrology (e.g., Newman et al. 2006 ; Voepel et al. 2011 ). Of particular importance are the roles of vegetation processes on the seasonal evolution of catchment ET and its partitioning into soil evaporation E , transpiration T , and evaporation of intercepted water I ( Reynolds et al. 2000 ). Ecohydrological studies during the monsoon typically focus on individual processes at the plot scale (e.g., Maass

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

minimize model edge effects. The goal of this study is to explore the impact that irrigation has on the hydrologic cycle using a high-resolution coupled land–atmosphere model. Simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008 ) were performed both with and without irrigation for a suite of years for different precipitation regimes. This includes El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years that have a marked influence on Great Plains precipitation ( Twine et al

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Agustín Robles-Morua, Enrique R. Vivoni, and Alex S. Mayer

radiation suggests that correspondence may exist between runoff mechanisms, which typically depend on seasonal wetness, and the land–atmosphere interactions arising during the NAM. Several studies have investigated how soil moisture plays a role in land–atmosphere exchanges and their impact on subsequent rainfall generation in the NAM region (e.g., Small 2001 ; Xu et al. 2004 ; Vivoni et al. 2009 ). This interaction arises from a positive soil moisture–rainfall feedback ( Eltahir 1998 ) that has been

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Ruth E. Comer and Martin J. Best

1. Introduction Soil moisture plays an important role in modifying the behavior of the atmosphere by its influence on land surface fluxes of moisture, energy, carbon, and trace gases [ Seneviratne et al. (2010) and references therein]. Of particular interest is the way in which the effects of these moisture and energy fluxes combine to create feedbacks on precipitation. Such feedbacks are complex because of their dependence on a variety of mechanisms. The scarcity of observations of soil

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

–AMSU Level 2 Support Product Dataset (AIRX2SUP) version 5 (from 1 September 2002 to 30 September 2007) and version 5.2 (from 1 October 2007 to 31 December 2009). The version 5 retrieval algorithm, which is the most current release, implements a radiative transfer algorithm that accounts for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium effects on the shortwave channels; incorporates a new, accurate cloud-clearing algorithm using AIRS spectra only; and provides for the first time case-by-case product error estimates

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

available in HS2012 . Fig . 1. (a) The dominant MODIS land use category used as input to WRF and (b) the irrigated fraction from Ozdogan and Gutman (2008) over the WRF domain. The region of study shown in (b) is a subset of the WRF domain chosen to minimize model edge effects. b. Irrigation representation Irrigation was represented on a subgrid cell basis using the high-resolution (500 m) irrigation fraction dataset from Ozdogan and Gutman (2008) . Fractional irrigation data was aggregated to the 10

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

Camargo H. Jr. , 2010 : Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe . Climate Dyn. , 38 , 349 – 362 , doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2 . van den Hurk, B. , Best M. , Dirmeyer P. , Pitman A. , Polcher J. , and Santanello J. Jr. , 2011 : Acceleration of land surface model development over a decade of glass . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 92 , 1593 – 1600 . van Heerwaarden, C. C. , Vilà-Guerau de Arellano J. , Moene A. F. , and

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