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Young-Kwon Lim, Ming Cai, Eugenia Kalnay, and Liming Zhou

combined atmospheric and surface warming effects, not only by vegetation effects ( Fig. 6 , lines with open circles). b. Variation of the OMR trend with the seasonal vegetation change Based on the understanding that the OMR trend varies with the temporal vegetation change, the seasonal variation of the OMR trends is estimated for several major regions over the NH. Five different regions are chosen here to investigate the response of the OMR trends for the NNR to the variation of the surface vegetation

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M. Baldi, G. A. Dalu, and R. A. Pielke Sr.

Rasmussen 1998 ). The development of thermally forced secondary circulations is favored by the absence of ambient flow, since they are suppressed by ambient flows with a wind speed exceeding 6 m s −1 for surface inhomogeneities larger than 50 km, or by weaker winds for smaller inhomogeneities ( Segal and Arritt 1992 ). From a climatic point of view, land-use changes have an impact on the regional and global scale, since spatially heterogeneous land-use effects may be at least as important in altering

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein

suppressed. In reality, the urban boundary layer responds to the UCL so that the UCL heat island is accompanied by an urban boundary layer heat island ( Oke 1976 ). The simulated downwelling longwave radiation is also the same over both surfaces. However, an urban “greenhouse” effect is known to exist as a result of the combined effects of pollution, humidity differences, and warmer urban atmospheric temperature ( Oke et al. 1991 ). This increases the downwelling longwave radiation over urban surfaces as

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