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Hui Wu

there is a year-round current with the same direction as Kuroshio, i.e., the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) ( Liang and Su 1994 ; Guan and Fang 2006 ; Zhu et al. 2004 ; sketched in Fig. 2a ), regardless of the seasonal reversal of monsoonal winds (southerly in summer season and northerly otherwise). Although the water mass of the TWC originates from the Taiwan Strait or from the Kuroshio subsurface water intrusion in the south ( Guan and Fang 2006 ; Yang et al. 2011 ), previous modeling studies

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

ridges. Ocean-model predictions are currently challenged in accurately representing flow fields in the vicinity of isolated deep-ocean islands and across ridges due to the poor representation of abrupt topographical features in the bathymetry and the consequent inadequate parameterizations of small-scale topographic effects on the large-scale flow ( Johnston et al. 2019 ; Simmons et al. 2019 ). Furthermore, assimilation, to correct predictions of these flows, is limited by the poor knowledge of the

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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

the eastern half of the basin ( Fig. 6a ). Slopes of the phase lines on this plot indicate that some of this variability is either propagating very rapidly across the entire basin (e.g., as barotropic Rossby waves; Andres et al. 2012 ) or it is associated with large-scale zonal processes like seasonal heating and cooling. One particularly striking feature that stretches across much of the western basin, is a broadscale SSH sat increase by about 30 cm in early 2016. As discussed in section 3b

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Matthew H. Alford, Daniel L. Rudnick, Gunnar Voet, and Hemantha Wijesekera

wake area as a causative mechanism of the “island-mass effect.” Mar. Biol. , 109 , 141 – 147 , https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01320241 . 10.1007/BF01320241 Heron , S. , E. Metzger , and W. Skirving , 2006 : Seasonal variations of the ocean surface circulation in the vicinity of Palau . J. Oceanogr. , 62 , 413 – 426 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-006-0065-3 . 10.1007/s10872-006-0065-3 Heywood , K. , E. Barton , and J. Simpson , 1990 : The effects of flow disturbance by an

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Daniel L. Rudnick, and Jennifer A. MacKinnon

causative mechanism of the “island-mass effect.” Mar. Biol. , 109 , 141 – 147 , https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01320241 . 10.1007/BF01320241 Heron , S. F. , E. J. Metzger , and W. J. Skirving , 2006 : Seasonal variations of the ocean surface circulation in the vicinity of Palau . J. Oceanogr. , 62 , 413 – 426 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-006-0065-3 . 10.1007/s10872-006-0065-3 Heywood , K. J. , E. D. Barton , and J. H. Simpson , 1990 : The effects of flow disturbance by an

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Eric Kunze and Ren-Chieh Lien

( x , y ) ( Nikurashin et al. 2014 ; Trossman et al. 2015 , 2016 ), although Klymak (2018) reported that blocking and hydraulic effects from larger-scale topography ( k < f / U ) dominated near-bottom dissipation by factors of 2–3; (ii) microstructure sampling biases in a highly heterogeneous turbulence field ( Waterman et al. 2014 ; Klymak 2018 ); (iii) internal wave–wave interactions transferring energy into waves free to propagate out of the jets ( f < ω E < N ); and (iv) advection

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