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Takuji Kubota, Shinta Seto, Masaki Satoh, Tomoe Nasuno, Toshio Iguchi, Takeshi Masaki, John M. Kwiatkowski, and Riko Oki

shows a domain shown in Fig. 3 . Fig . 3. Horizontal distribution of CLWP for Typhoon Fengshen (2008) at 1200 UTC 19 Jun 2008 in (a) 3.5-km-mesh data, and (b) 0.5° × 0.5° latitude–longitude gridded data. Note that the current study is focused upon the cloud data only in precipitating clouds. Figure 4 shows zonal mean values of the CLWP averaged over nine days. To reduce seasonal dependencies, the CLWP values were averaged by absolute values of the latitude. Figure 4 compares values averaged for

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F. Joseph Turk, Z. S. Haddad, and Y. You

conditions—inland water fraction, vegetation and forest structure, snow and ice edges that can change over the period of a few days, and overall wider seasonal extremes in air temperature, water, and land surface temperature and associated water vapor conditions—that contribute to a physically complex surface emissivity background state. In recent years, a number of modeling and observationally oriented surface emissivity studies have been carried out ( Tian et al. 2015 ) to estimate or model the land

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Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Mark Kulie, Nai-Yu Wang, Ralph Ferraro, S. Joseph Munchak, and Veljko Petkovic

.1175/1520-0450-34.1.260 . Ferraro, R. R. , Grody N. C. , and Marks G. F. , 1994 : Effects of surface conditions on rain identification using SSM/I . Remote Sens. Rev. , 11 , 195 – 209 , doi: 10.1080/02757259409532265 . Ferraro, R. R. , Smith E. A. , Berg W. , and Huffman G. J. , 1998 : A screening methodology for passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms . J. Atmos. Sci. , 55 , 1583 – 1600 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<1583:ASMFPM>2.0.CO;2 . Forgy, E. , 1965 : Cluster analysis of

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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Sung-Dae Yang, Mircea Grecu, Geun-Hyeok Ryu, Guosheng Liu, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Ziad Haddad, and Jinho Shin

improve through the selective use [i.e., as a function of dynamical–thermodynamical–hydrological (DTH) geographical–seasonal (GS) factors] of the underlying cloud-radiation database. In our approach, we mitigate the impact of GS variability on the quality of the derived cloud-radiation database by focusing exclusively on a specific region and season, that is, the seas and oceans east of Asia during the summer season. Given the use of vertical reflectivity profiles in derivation of the cloud

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