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Yudong Tian, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and John B. Eylander

different seasons. This is based on the observation that the error characteristics have a strong seasonal dependency ( Ebert et al. 2007 ; Sapiano and Arkin 2009 ; Tian et al. 2009 , 2010 ); the inconsistent performance between warm and cold seasons will degrade the training of the satellite data if lumped together. Ideally the annual cycle could be split into more segments, such as four seasons, if the training data are abundant. But with the current amount of training data available, the two

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

23% of the CNRFC domain precipitation total, whereas for the NWRFC >7.6 cm (24 h) −1 [3.0 in. (24 h) −1 ] events accounted for roughly 7% of the NWRFC domain precipitation total. b. QPF performance To assess the performance of the QPFs for day 1, day 2, and day 3 forecast lead times, in terms of total seasonal accumulation bias, the total forecasted precipitation and the total observed precipitation at each site in the CNRFC was calculated and plotted in Fig. 3a . With the exception of the site

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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

.7 to 31.6 m 3 s −1 (hereafter cms) and on the Russian River from 55.6 to 159.5 cms (a factor of 5.3 and 2.8, respectively). When only those events with at least 45 mm of precipitation are considered (60 events), the average duration was 29 h ( Table 2 ). More so than the effects of increased maximum upslope IWV flux (7%) and average rain rates (16%), it is the 45% longer duration that led to a 68% increase in storm-total rainfall for this subset of cases ( Table 2 ). The difference between 29

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James A. Smith, Gabriele Villarini, and Mary Lynn Baeck

706 km 2 (9651 mi 2 ); USGS ID 01638500], and the James [5307 km 2 (2073 mi 2 ); USGS ID 02019500]. For these analyses we selected flood peaks from mean daily discharge data to provide two events per year, on average ( Fig. 3 ). For the three stations, there is a pronounced seasonal maximum in flood occurrence during the March–April period, with the most pronounced seasonal peak in the most northern of the three basins, the Susquehanna. There is a second fall maximum, reflecting the

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

scintillometer path [except for d ≈ 1, when the relation between 〈 R 〉 and 〈 k 〉 is approximately linear, such that rain variations along the path do not affect the conversion from 〈 k 〉 to 〈 R 〉 in Eq. (3) ]. Although a detailed analysis of these aspects is beyond the scope of the current study, some of the implications of this assumption will be discussed later; Berne and Uijlenhoet (2007) and Leijnse et al. (2008 , 2010) present simulation studies of these effects for the case of rainfall

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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

). 2. CESAR site description CESAR is a consortium of three universities and five major research institutes (see online at http://www.cesar-observatory.nl ). The CESAR site is located at 51.971°N, 4.927°E, between the villages of Cabauw and Lopik, the Netherlands, and is operated by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI). The Netherlands has a temperate climate with prevailing westerly winds. Mean annual rainfall varies between 675 and 925 mm (800 mm at Cabauw), with little seasonal

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

, precipitation in Japan during the baiu season represents a very interesting playground, and therefore, links between rainfall over the region and large-scale climatic phenomena are the emphasis of scientific research (e.g., Wu et al. 2003 ; Yamaura and Tomita 2012 ). These previous studies suggest climate mode variability and seasonal rainfall behavior may correlate over East Asia. However, scientific questions about the link between the heavy precipitation in Japan and WPs remain unanswered. When

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

purposes, we also examined the eight IMPROVE II storm events (22 12-h periods; Table 1 ) from December 2001 analyzed in Medina et al. (2007) . Table 2 places the Portland seasonal precipitation accumulations for 2003–06 into a 10-yr context and indicates the respective phases of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). There is substantial year-to-year variability in precipitation between 2000 and 2009, with the winter season of 2004/05 representing dryer

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