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Kaoru Sato and Motoyoshi Yoshiki

downward control principle proposed by Haynes et al. (1991) , the gravity wave force drives a global-scale meridional circulation from the summer to winter poles around the mesopause and maintains the latitudinal gradient of temperature, which is the reverse of what would be expected from the latitudinal distribution of solar radiation. It is also thought that gravity waves may have similar effects on the meridional circulation in the stratosphere (i.e., the Brewer–Dobson circulation), although

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Dong L. Wu and Stephen D. Eckermann

1. Introduction Gravity waves (GWs) play a key role in the global meteorology, climate, chemistry, and microphysics of the stratosphere and mesosphere ( Fritts and Alexander 2003 ). Because finite computational resources force global climate–chemistry and weather prediction models to run at spatial resolutions that do not adequately resolve GW dynamics, these important GW-induced effects must be parameterized (e.g., McLandress 1998 ; Kim et al. 2003 ). Arguably the greatest weakness in

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