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M. Issa Lélé and Peter J. Lamb

Sahara Desert. At the surface, the wind direction discontinuity is characterized by pronounced temperature and humidity gradients that migrate seasonally northward then southward, lagging somewhat the zenith angle of the sun in the northern tropics. Between the surface and about 700 hPa, the ITF slopes upward to the south at inclinations between 1:100 and 1:400 ( Hastenrath and Lamb 1977 ; Hastenrath 1991 , 166–174) and is the upper boundary of the meridionally migrating wedge of monsoon air. The

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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

equatorial ocean current/countercurrent system (e.g., Hansen and Paul 1984 ; Qiao and Weisberg 1998 ; Masina and Philander 1999 ). Data analyses and modeling studies indicate that they have significant effects on ocean thermal and dynamical fields. For example, it has been demonstrated that TIWs are important to the meridional transport of heat near the equator (e.g., Bryden and Brady 1989 ; Kessler et al. 1998 ; Vialard et al. 2003 ; Jochum and Murtugudde 2006 ; Jochum et al. 2005 , 2007

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