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Susan A. Crate

approaches to facilitate effective adaptation ( Parry et al. 2007 ; Crate and Nuttall 2009 ). One of the main effects, as climate change proceeds, is the unprecedented alteration of earth’s water regimes 2 ( Anderson et al. 2008 ; Stohlgren et al. 2007 ; van Dam 2003 ). Bates et al. (2008 , p. 3) wrote on water resources: Observational records and climate projections provide abundant evidence that freshwater resources are vulnerable and have the potential to be strongly impacted by climate change

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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

the information within them ( Woodward 2010 ; Malsale et al. 2018 ). Traditional calendars are an important tool for understanding past environmental changes, including climate variability and change ( McNaught et al. 2011 ; Mondragón 2014 ). The use of seasonal calendars and their associated traditional knowledge can reduce potential negative effects of climate and natural disasters on agricultural activities, including providing strategies for dealing with uncertainty and increasing food

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Randy A. Peppler

example, Orlove et al. (2000 , 2002) determined that the star observations of Andean potato farmers, based on the visibility of the Pleiades star cluster the farmers viewed in June to ascertain when and where to plant, compare well to the stage of El Niño and its cirrus-cloud-producing capabilities. Table 1 contains one possible comparison for the winter predictions using seasonal snowfall amounts and average temperatures obtained from National Weather Service Forecast Offices located nearest to

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Savin S. Chand, Lynda E. Chambers, Mike Waiwai, Philip Malsale, and Elisabeth Thompson

1. Introduction Weather forecasting has been practiced by humans for millennia and is an aid to decision making under conditions of uncertainty. Early forecast decisions were made entirely with knowledge accumulated over generations of local observations. Even today, one does not have to be a trained meteorologist to be a forecaster. Indigenous farmers, for example, whose livelihoods directly depend on weather and climate, often monitor and predict weather and seasonal climate events through

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L. Jen Shaffer and Leocadia Naiene

1. Introduction Faced with overwhelming evidence for global climate change, the focus of research and policy has shifted toward understanding the mechanisms driving changes, climate change effects at regional scales, and how human communities must adapt to survive. However, the coarse resolution of current climate modeling efforts is frequently inappropriate for policy and intervention efforts ( Cash et al. 2006 ; Wilbanks and Kates 1999 ). Global and regional scales fail to capture how local

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Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole, Moseki Ronald Motsholapheko, Barbara Ntombi Ngwenya, Olekae Thakadu, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, and Donald Letsholo Kgathi

increasingly being witnessed in continental Africa in the recent times, and this will likely have an adverse effect on human livelihoods and productive infrastructures in the future ( Noble 2007 ). More importantly, there are indications that climate change effects on agriculture will be severe in marginal areas such as dry lands or areas with low soil fertility ( Bates et al. 2008 ; Olesen and Bindi 2002 ). Agriculture, which is highly sensitive to changes in weather conditions, is one of the key

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Randy A. Peppler

be. Wallace, an Apache rancher, farmer, and retired schoolteacher, also mentioned a loss of water resources. 5. Effects of change on observational methods An important consideration here, which the collaborators echoed, is how climate change is rendering some of their observational indicators less reliable. As told, this is manifested mostly as confusion in animal behavior and in unreliability of once-assumed weather patterns and seasonal changes. Anecdotal evidence from other places in the world

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Valeria Hernandez, Vincent Moron, Florencia Fossa Riglos, and Eugenia Muzi

1. Introduction The relationship between climate and how it is understood by local communities is characterized as “perception,” lending this subject to subjectivity analysis ( Leiserowitz 2005 , 2007 ; Schlindwein et al. 2011 ; Bonatti 2011 ; Boulanger 2012 ; Aberra 2012 ). The studies usually begin with a questionnaire to evaluate the climatic effects on various socioeconomic sectors. For example, farmers are asked to identify the climatic characteristics they use to establish their

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Karen Pennesi

: Indigenous climate knowledge in southern Uganda: The multiple components of a dynamic regional system . Climatic Change , 100 , 243 – 265 . Patt, A. , and Gwata C. , 2002 : Effective seasonal climate forecast applications: Examining constraints for subsistence farmers in Zimbabwe . Global Environ. Change , 12 , 185 – 195 . Patt, A. , Suarez P. , and Gwata C. , 2005 : Effects of seasonal climate forecasts and participatory workshops among subsistence farmers in Zimbabwe . Proc. Natl

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Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve, David B. Stephenson, and Thomas Spengler

2007 ; Stiller-Reeve et al. 2015 ). We must ensure that the producers and the users of scientific information are talking about the same phenomenon. For a climate phenomenon (e.g., the monsoon onset), the producers should define it in a way that yields timing and variability that the users can relate to. In this way, we increase the potential to develop science products that “fit” stakeholder needs ( Ray et al. 2007 ). This paper attempts to make this fit by evaluating the timing of seasonal

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