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Ali H. Omar, David M. Winker, Mark A. Vaughan, Yongxiang Hu, Charles R. Trepte, Richard A. Ferrare, Kam-Pui Lee, Chris A. Hostetler, Chieko Kittaka, Raymond R. Rogers, Ralph E. Kuehn, and Zhaoyan Liu

anthropogenic and natural categories but also addresses the effects of specific species such as black carbon on snow. When direct measurements of the speciation of particle samples can be made, aerosols are chemically classified by the predominant species (e.g., sulfates, black carbon, organic carbon, etc.). Aerosols have also been classified by their hygroscopicity as being water soluble or water insoluble. Such classification is particularly useful for studies of the aerosol effects on cloud formation

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Zhaoyan Liu, Mark Vaughan, David Winker, Chieko Kittaka, Brian Getzewich, Ralph Kuehn, Ali Omar, Kathleen Powell, Charles Trepte, and Chris Hostetler

backscatter coefficient at range z i with additional corrections for the effects of molecular and ozone attenuations applied. For practical use, the PDFs are implemented as a 100 × 100 × 20 three-dimensional array. The attenuated backscatter dimension of the PDFs is logarithmic, having 100 elements starting at ln( β ′) = −12 with an increment of 0.14. The attenuated total backscatter color ratio dimension also has 100 elements, starting at χ ′ = 0 with increments of 0.02. The midlayer altitude

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Mark A. Vaughan, Kathleen A. Powell, David M. Winker, Chris A. Hostetler, Ralph E. Kuehn, William H. Hunt, Brian J. Getzewich, Stuart A. Young, Zhaoyan Liu, and Matthew J. McGill

at that altitude where the profile data first exceeds the threshold values over some minimum feature thickness. Base determination is less straightforward, and the correct identification will depend on the (as yet undetermined) effects of feature attenuation. In any clear-air region above the first feature detected, the expected value of R ′( r ) is always 1. However, as is evident by inspection of Eq. (2) , in the clear air immediately beneath the first feature, where β P ( r ) once again

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