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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

seasonal thermocline ( Fig. SB4 ). After sunrise, the absorption of insolation increases the SST to a peak (SST max ) in the afternoon. The penetrating solar radiation also increases temperature gradient near the surface and forms a diurnal warm layer (DWL). The DWL with a high gradient of potential density can stabilize the upper ocean and inhibit the turbulent mixing ( Fairall et al. 2003 ; Brainerd and Gregg 1993 ). The nighttime convective mixing will repeat and erode the DWL after the sunset. The

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