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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

the NESC have not been adequately explored so far. The seasonal variability of the Pacific equatorial subsurface currents has been studied by Lukas and Firing (1985) , Kessler and McCreary (1993) , and Marin et al. (2010) , showing that the annual reversal of the Equatorial Intermediate Current is controlled by vertical propagation of baroclinic Rossby waves. Using Argo parking depth trajectory measurements, Cravatte et al. (2012) showed that the largely one cycle per year variations of the

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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

1. Introduction There has been growing interest in forecasts at subseasonal time scales (i.e., 3–4 weeks; National Research Council 2010 ; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2016 ), which fills the gap between medium-range weather forecast and seasonal prediction. The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ), the primary mode of tropical intraseasonal climate variability in the boreal winter and spring, is considered to be a major source of global

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Lei Zhou, Ruomei Ruan, and Raghu Murtugudde

1994 ). The seasonality of SPCZ is coherent with that of eastward-propagating MJOs; that is, they both exist during all seasons but are more active in boreal winter ( Wang and Rui 1990 ; Zhang and Dong 2004 ; Widlansky et al. 2010 ; Kidwell et al. 2016 ). The MJOs can influence the SPCZ via the subtropical Rossby wave propagation and advection of air masses with high potential vorticity in the upper troposphere ( Matthews et al. 1996 ). Matthews (2012) found that the active MJO phase shifted

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Yuntao Wei and Zhaoxia Pu

1. Introduction The 20–90-day tropical intraseasonal oscillation (TISO) has strong seasonality ( Lau and Waliser 2012 ). The wintertime TISO or the so-called Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ) features a planetary-scale ( Li and Zhou 2009 ; Wei et al. 2018 ) convection–circulation coupled system that propagates eastward (~5 m s −1 ) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific ( Hendon and Salby 1994 ). In contrast, the boreal summer intraseasonal

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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

: Seasonal variability of the relationship between SST and OLR in the Indian Ocean and its implications for initialization in a CGCM with SST nudging . J. Oceanogr. , 72 , 327 – 337 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-015-0329-x . 10.1007/s10872-015-0329-x Koseki , S. , T. Y. Koh , and C. K. Teo , 2013 : Effects of the cold tongue in the South China Sea on the monsoon, diurnal cycle and rainfall in the Maritime Continent . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 139 , 1566 – 1582 , https://doi.org/10

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Hironari Kanamori, Tomo’omi Kumagai, Hatsuki Fujinami, Tetsuya Hiyama, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

Yasunari 2008 ). It is interesting to note that the strength of the seasonality of both P and C for all domains in Fig. 4 depends on the combined effects of large-scale circulations, for example, the positions of both the ITCZ and the SPCZ, and the northeasterly winter monsoon. Fig . 4. Climatological (1998–2012) mean monthly precipitation P , moisture flux convergence C , temporal change in precipitable water content W (mm day −1 ), and LWUR (%) over (a) BOL, (b) NGL, (c) BOC, (d) NGC, and

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Casey D. Burleyson, Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Brandon W. J. Kerns, and Daehyun Kim

. The MJO exhibits a pronounced seasonal cycle; the main convective envelope associated with the MJO detours the MC southward during boreal winter while the MJO propagates primarily north of the MC during boreal summer ( Zhang and Dong 2004 ). While the mechanism for the southward and northward detouring of the MJO around the MC has been studied ( Adames et al. 2016 ; Kim et al. 2017 ), the possible differences in the MC barrier effects between the two seasons has not been fully explored. We aim to

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

complex land–sea contrast and orography in the MC also exerts effects on the prominent tropical phenomenon such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an intraseasonal fluctuation ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ), during its passage through the MC ( Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Sobel et al. 2010 ; Oh et al. 2012 , 2013 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Hagos et al. 2016 ; Kim et al. 2017 ; Zhang and Ling 2017 ). Matthews (2000) and Hsu and Lee (2005) reveal

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Casey R. Densmore, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, and Bradford S. Barrett

at each level from 1000 and 10 hPa. All anomalies are calculated as deviations from the climatological mean (defined as a 31-day sliding window) from 1980 to 2017. Static stability is calculated as follows: where g is the gravitational constant (9.8 m s −2 ), is the potential temperature (K), and is the change in potential temperature with height (K m −1 ; Stull 1995 ). To consider potential seasonality of the QBO–MJO relationship, MJO amplitude change and QBO effects on zonal wind shear

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

. The melting and thawing of sea ice were approximately accounted for. Not properly dealt with were the changes in runoff from land, although the 12-month running mean removes most of those effects. For the Pacific, we integrated southward from the Bering Strait, where through transports are small enough to be neglected, but could be considered. However, the Indian and Pacific Oceans were combined because of their connection through the Indonesian region, called the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). In

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