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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

associated with snow melting and freezing. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived clear-sky surface albedos were found to agree well with surface observations ( Zhang et al. 2003 ). Ground measurements provide information at high temporal resolution (from minutes to hours) but at low spatial coverage (only a spot measurement); satellite estimates can cover large regions but at relatively lower temporal resolution (hourly, daily, and monthly) and at coarser spatial scales (so far

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

appendix ). In the case when h i was estimated to be >0.2 m from AMSR-E, h i was set to 0.8 m. The value of h i is based on ice draft measured by an ice profiling sonar (IPS; Fukamachi et al. (2006 ; 2009) and Russian historical data ( Petrov 1998 ). In the Sea of Okhotsk, sea ice is mostly covered with snow, except for new (thin) ice ( Toyota et al. 2007 ). In this study, we assumed an h s value of 0.16 m, which is 20% of h i , for the case of the thick ice ( h i = 0.8 m). This ratio of

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

guess field with an interactive sea ice model and was produced at T-382 spectral resolution. Model variables are produced from 6-h forecasts. Precipitation and latent heat flux fields were obtained at full resolution from the National Climatic Data Center for the period 1979–2005. Evaporation for the CFSR was computed from 6-h prognostic surface latent heat flux fields using snow cover and sea ice conditions to denote the latent heat of phase transition. The regions of interest are shown in Fig. 1

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

of detailed snow physics on the simulation of snow cover and subsurface thermodynamics at continental scales . J. Hydrometeor. , 2 , 228 – 242 . Suarez , M. , 2011 : File specification for MERRA products . NASA Tech. Memo., 90 pp. [Available from Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, Earth Sciences Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA/GSFC Code 610.1, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771.] Trenberth , K. E. , 1997 : Using atmospheric budgets as a constraint on surface

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