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Chul-Su Shin, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Bohua Huang, Subhadeep Halder, and Arun Kumar

Fig. 6 ). In general, relatively larger year-by-year variations of soil moisture inconsistencies between the two land initial states seem to be related to the melting of snowpack in the extratropics of the winter Hemisphere and in mountainous areas such as the Himalayas and Andes (right panels of Fig. 6 ). Inconsistencies in soil moisture and snow cover are primarily driven by the precipitation forcing in the two land surface analyses, but the other differences in soil and vegetation classes and

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Chul-Su Shin, Bohua Huang, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Subhadeep Halder, and Arun Kumar

. 2019 ). Regional land surface states (e.g., soil moisture, snow cover, vegetation properties, etc.) also contribute to drought severity and development (e.g., Higgins et al. 1998 ; Schubert et al. 2007 ; Koster et al. 2017 ). In particular, positive feedbacks between land and atmosphere can exacerbate or prolong dry anomalies, playing a role in maintaining droughts (e.g., Durre et al. 2000 ; Fischer et al. 2007 ; Koster et al. 2009 ; Kam et al. 2014 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2015 ; Fernando et al

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Keyhan Gavahi, Peyman Abbaszadeh, Hamid Moradkhani, Xiwu Zhan, and Christopher Hain

results in about 38–1020 mm annual runoff. Despite high average rainfall and runoff, the basin has experienced three extensive multiyear droughts between 2000 and 2015 (2000–01, 2007–08, and 2011–12). In 2011–12, the exceptional drought condition prevailed which led to significant ecosystem and economic losses ( Leitman et al. 2016 ). Fig . 1. The location of the ACF basin in the southeastern United States alongside the land use land cover of the basin. Data from the USGS National Land Cover Database

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Yaling Liu, Dongdong Chen, Soukayna Mouatadid, Xiaoliang Lu, Min Chen, Yu Cheng, Zhenghui Xie, Binghao Jia, Huan Wu, and Pierre Gentine

temperature, surface net solar radiation (SSR), wind speed, and total cloud cover ( Table 1 ) from 1981 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 0.25° are obtained from ERA-Interim ( Dee et al. 2011 ). Dew temperature and air temperature are used together to calculate the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) through the Clausius–Clapeyron equation using the Magnus approximation ( Andrews 2010 ; Lawrence 2005 ), as VPD is an important factor that affects photosynthesis and evapotranspiration rates and thus influences

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Yizhou Zhuang, Amir Erfanian, and Rong Fu

levels and a T255 spectral horizontal resolution (~79 km). The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Prediction Center (CPC) unified gauge-based analysis of daily precipitation over the CONUS was used as the precipitation observation reference. Those data have a 0.25° × 0.25° resolution over the CONUS and are available from 1948 to present. For SST, the NOAA Extended Reconstructed SST version 5 (ERSSTv5) is used in this study. ERSSTv5 data have a 2° × 2° resolution and cover

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