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  • DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation x
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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

cloud cover and surface properties for case M100 are shown in Fig. 3 . Convection typically consists of 5–10 isolated 10–20-km convective cells. At times they form clusters greater than 100 km across as shown by the centrally located cloud mass in Fig. 3 . Simulated convective cells and clusters are most evident in the surface temperature and flux fields, which indicate where cold pools have expanded from convective downdrafts. Cold pool systems are characterized by air masses with cooler

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Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

can be taken directly from the sounding observations or approximated using the vertical velocity calculated by assuming a balance between diabatic heating and vertical potential temperature advection and the vertical moisture gradient. However, the column under consideration must cover a large spatial scale for the approximation of diabatic balance to hold. The vertical velocity calculated by assuming diabatic balance can also be decomposed into its component parts using the contributions of

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

). Surface fluxes are treated using the Monin–Obukov scheme. The WRF Double-Moment (WDM) microphysics scheme ( Lim and Hong 2010 ) from WRF3.5.1 is adopted with additional modification on the limit of the shape parameters and terminal speed of snow, based on preliminary tests and our experience in cloud-resolving simulations. No convective parameterization scheme is used. The horizontal and vertical advection schemes are fifth-order and third-order accurate, respectively. Moisture and condensate are

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Yue Ying and Fuqing Zhang

computational domain covers the equatorial Indian Ocean and part of the Maritime Continent (20°S–20°N, 50°–120°E). The model grid is 445 × 778 with 9-km spacing, and it has 45 vertical levels with 9 levels in the lowest 1 km and a model top at 20 hPa. The initial condition (IC) and lateral boundary condition (LBC) are specified by the ERA-Interim data ( Dee et al. 2011 ). The sea surface temperature (SST) for the lower boundary condition is updated every 6 h according to the ERA-Interim data. The WRF double

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, and Merhala Thurai

less similar, either in phase, shape, and/or orientation; see Straka et al. (2000) , BC01 , and Kumjian (2013) ]. Radar brightband identification caused by melting snow is much more reliable with dual-polarization radar variables than with radar reflectivity alone (e.g., Brandes and Ikeda 2004 ; Thompson et al. 2014 ). The radar bright band is an indicator of stratiform rain type. Unfortunately, we cannot analyze radar statistics of convective, stratiform, or total rainfall occurrence

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric Maloney, and Susan C. van den Heever

System (RAMS; Cotton et al. 2003 ; Saleeby and van den Heever 2013 ), version 6.14. RAMS is a fully compressible, nonhydrostatic model with two-moment bulk microphysics that predicts mixing ratio and number concentration for eight hydrometeor classes: cloud droplets, drizzle, rain, pristine ice, snow, aggregates, graupel, and hail ( Walko et al. 1995 ; Meyers et al. 1997 ; Saleeby and Cotton 2004 ; Saleeby and van den Heever 2013 ). The Harrington (1997) radiation scheme is fully interactive

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