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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

.g., Giri et al. 2005 ; Herold et al. 2008 ; McCallum et al. 2006 ). Although these studies made a comprehensive comparison of land cover types, they did not adequately compare water-related land cover types—that is, snow and ice, wetlands, and open water. The studies did find high per-pixel agreements and global total area for snow and ice among the 1-km land cover datasets but they did not examine accuracy and uncertainty for specific geographical features. The per-pixel agreement for wetland areas

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

devised. Rainfall estimation through emission is in this case based on Kirchhoff’s law. However, note that when large ice particles coexist with liquid drops in cold clouds the scattering processes become dominant especially around 190 GHz, where also surface effects (i.e., snow cover over the mountains, surface roughness, etc.) can play an important role. In such situations, the retrieval quality may be similar to that of the scattering index algorithms, which generally sense only more intense

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

recognized for many years. The primary customers for such data have been numerical modelers of climate and weather. Manabe (1969) was the first to predict soil moisture and snow cover as state variables within a general circulation model (GCM). He adopted the bucket model of land surface hydrology, treating each land surface grid box as a shallow pan 150 mm deep that could catch precipitation and allow it to evaporate back into the atmosphere. Precipitation that exceeded the capacity of the bucket

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Qing Liu, Rolf H. Reichle, Rajat Bindlish, Michael H. Cosh, Wade T. Crow, Richard de Jeu, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, George J. Huffman, and Thomas J. Jackson

vegetation, no precipitation, no snow cover, no frozen ground, no radio frequency interference (RFI), and a heterogeneity index of less than 5 K (based on higher-resolution AMSR-E channels at higher frequencies). The latter criterion excludes soil moisture retrievals that are affected by open water. These criteria are identical to those of Reichle et al. (2007) except that the present study also assimilated soil moisture retrievals with a corresponding AMSR-E flag for moderate vegetation (which were

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

( Chen et al. 2008 ), Precipitation Reconstruction over Land (PREC/L; Chen et al. 2002 ), and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP; Xie and Arkin 1997 )—are used to examine the uncertainty in global irrigation water requirements caused by the precipitation data used. All results are based on GPCC precipitation data unless otherwise specified. b. Land cover, soil, LAI, and agricultural data Current land cover, soil texture, and soil and vegetation parameters are taken from the GSWP2 ( Dirmeyer

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

–Monteith equation ( Monteith and Unsworth 1990 ) for each component. Then, actual EI is obtained by considering the capacity of water interception on the leaf surface (0.125 kg H 2 O m −2 leaf area), and actual ES is obtained by considering the limitation of soil water content. In the hydrology scheme, snow water accumulation and its impact on surface reflectance (albedo) are considered. The major coupling processes between the carbon and water cycles are included in the model: 1) leaf gas exchanges of CO 2

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

: AMeDAS Observations and Statistical Data 2009 Edition . Japan Meteorological Business Support Center, CD-ROM . Jones, H. , Pomeroy J. , Davies T. , Tranter M. , and Marsh P. , 1999 : CO 2 in Arctic snow cover: Landscape form, in-pack gas concentration gradients, and the implications for the estimation of gaseous fluxes . Hydrol. Processes , 13 , 2977 – 2989 . Kanno, H. , 1997 : Classification of the Yamase (cold northeasterly wind around northeastern Japan) based upon its air

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

cover of forests and frequent rainfalls. AsiaFlux, the Asian network of regional flux tower networks, has been conducting the long-term measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) and CO 2 fluxes using the eddy covariance (EC) system and has provided a series of gap-filled ET datasets. There are 18 forests sites out of 23 sites whose data are available through the AsiaFlux database ( https://db.cger.nies.go.jp/asiafluxdb/ ). Considering the important contribution of E WC to ET, it is essential to

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