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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

et al. 2018 ; Pettersen et al. 2020 ). Deeper cloud structures that are characteristic of midlatitude winter cyclones are generally easier for PMWs to detect due to strong scattering signals from ice particles and higher reflectivity values that can be detected by radars with reduced sensitivity. Shallow snowfall, however, presents unique PMW detection complexities at higher latitudes since its radiative signal can be difficult to discern over snow-covered surfaces. Depending on radar

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Sarah Ringerud, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joe Munchak, and Yalei You

, coast, five land surface classes of varying vegetation level, and four classes of increasingly snow-covered land), 2 m temperature, and TPW derived from ancillary model data, which serve to constrain the retrievals. (An earlier iteration utilized an OE retrieval for the TPW field over ocean only, but this has been discontinued.) It is important to note that in this formulation, the 2BCMB retrievals constitute the mechanically correct answer from an algorithm perspective—GPROF cannot retrieve

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Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Clement Guilloteau, Phu Nguyen, Amir Aghakouchak, Kuo-Lin Hsu, Antonio Busalacchi, F. Joseph Turk, Christa Peters-Lidard, Taikan Oki, Qingyun Duan, Witold Krajewski, Remko Uijlenhoet, Ana Barros, Pierre Kirstetter, William Logan, Terri Hogue, Hoshin Gupta, and Vincenzo Levizzani

, snow- and ice-covered regions, at high latitudes and along land margins (coast lines and lakes), and in estimating heavy precipitation from convective weather systems [e.g., Decadal Survey; National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM); NASEM 2018 , chapter 6]. The past and future successes of precipitation observation from space rely on the synergy and complementarity with ground and airborne measurements (for calibration and validation in particular, see Kirstetter et al

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Shruti A. Upadhyaya, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Jonathan J. Gourley, and Robert J. Kuligowski

detection over snow cover . J. Hydrometeor. , 20 , 251 – 274 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-18-0021.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-18-0021.1 Tan , J. , W. A. Petersen , P.-E. Kirstetter , and Y. Tian , 2017 : Performance of IMERG as a function of spatiotemporal scale . J. Hydrometeor. , 18 , 307 – 319 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-16-0174.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0174.1 Taniguchi , A. , and Coauthors , 2013 : Improvement of high-resolution satellite rainfall product for Typhoon Morakot (2009

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Nobuyuki Utsumi, F. Joseph Turk, Ziad S. Haddad, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and Hyungjun Kim

index, it is in the EPC database for analysis purposes, as a means to efficiently separate the results of this study by fixed surface types. The surface type information obtained from GPROF product provides 14 surface type classes (i.e., ocean, sea ice, five types of vegetation, four types of snow cover, standing water, land/ocean or water coast, and sea ice edge) based on self-similar emissivities derived from TELSEM ( Aires et al. 2011 ; Passive Microwave Algorithm Team Facility 2018 ). In the

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

profiles associated with collocated GMI radiometric measurements. The first database contains only profiles over vegetated land surfaces, excluding, in particular, coastal areas and snow-covered areas. For this, we rely on the surface type classification used in the current operational implementation (V05) of the GPROF algorithm ( Aires et al. 2011 ). The vegetated surface classes account for 70% of all land surfaces at the latitudes covered by the GPM Core Observatory . The second database contains

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

. 2003 ) simulations from three oceanic field campaigns (i.e., GATE, SCSMEX, and TOGA COARE) and two continental (i.e., ARM 1997 and 2002) using an improved version of the Rutledge and Hobbs (1983 , 1984 ) three-class ice scheme ( Lang et al. 2007 ) wherein the unrealistic dry collection of snow and ice by graupel was turned off. Because heating components can easily be separated in the model, LUTs were constructed for each of the heating components (i.e., LH, eddy heating, and radiative) and later

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

passive microwave rainfall retrievals . J. Hydrometeor. , 19 , 69 – 85 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-17-0069.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-17-0069.1 Romanov , P. , G. Gutman , and I. Csiszar , 2000 : Automated monitoring of snow cover over North America with multispectral satellite data . J. Appl. Meteor. , 39 , 1866 – 1880 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1866:AMOSCO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1866:AMOSCO>2.0.CO;2 Sanò , P. , G. Panegrossi , D. Casella , A. C

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Chandra Rupa Rajulapati, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Martyn P. Clark, Saman Razavi, Guoqiang Tang, and John W. Pomeroy

with winter minima in precipitation have heavy tails ( γ PII > 0.3 and γ W < 0.45). Warm, humid, temperate climates with higher precipitation show light to medium tails. The polar regions with temperature maxima < 10°C, characteristic of tundra, generally have medium tails. While northern North America and Asia, where there is a seasonal snow cover and a humid continental climate, have medium to heavy tails, the subhumid continental climate interior regions have heavy to medium heavy tails. In

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