Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) x
  • All content x
Clear All
Rolf H. Reichle, Randal D. Koster, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Barton A. Forman, Qing Liu, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Ally Touré

air temperature and humidity. This soil moisture analysis, however, is designed to improve the turbulent surface flux estimates and subsequent atmospheric forecasts and provides no clear benefit to soil moisture estimates ( Drusch and Viterbo 2007 ). ERA-I also includes a snow analysis based on in situ snow depth and satellite snow cover observations ( Drusch et al. 2004 ). The structure functions used in the ERA-I snow depth analysis differ from those used in the CMC product. Because of recently

Full access
Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Rolf H. Reichle, and Kyle C. McDonald

observations, MERRA and AMSR-E at a (a) woody savannah site (USSRM, 31.821°N 110.866°W, soil depth ≤5 cm) and (b) boreal old jack pine forest site (CA-OJP, 53.916°N 104.692°W, soil depth ≤15 cm). Bars extending below top axes show daily in situ-precipitation. Figure 10b represents a boreal old jack pine forest tower site in Saskatchewan (CA-OJP, 53.916°N, 104.692°W). The AMSR-E retrievals are strongly constrained at this cold site owing to seasonal snow cover and frozen soil conditions in winter and high

Full access
David H. Bromwich, Julien P. Nicolas, and Andrew J. Monaghan

evaporation/sublimation ( P − E ) is used as an approximation of the ice sheet’s SMB. The P − E neglects some ablation processes such as melt/runoff, horizontal snow transport, and blowing-snow sublimation. Melt/runoff is mostly confined to the coastal ice shelves. On the continent, meltwater generally refreezes within the snowpack, thereby contributing negligibly to the overall SMB ( Liston and Winther 2005 ). The two wind-induced processes (not represented in the reanalysis models) are most

Full access
Michele M. Rienecker, Max J. Suarez, Ronald Gelaro, Ricardo Todling, Julio Bacmeister, Emily Liu, Michael G. Bosilovich, Siegfried D. Schubert, Lawrence Takacs, Gi-Kong Kim, Stephen Bloom, Junye Chen, Douglas Collins, Austin Conaty, Arlindo da Silva, Wei Gu, Joanna Joiner, Randal D. Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Andrea Molod, Tommy Owens, Steven Pawson, Philip Pegion, Christopher R. Redder, Rolf Reichle, Franklin R. Robertson, Albert G. Ruddick, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Jack Woollen

: Diagnosis of observation, background and analysis-error statistics in observation space . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 131 , 3385 – 3396 . Ferraro , R. R. , N. C. Grody , F. Weng , and A. Basist , 1996 : An eight-year (1987–94) time series of rainfall, clouds, water vapor, snow cover, and sea ice derived from SSM/I measurements . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 891 – 905 . Garcia , R. R. , and B. A. Boville , 1994 : Downward control of the mean meridional circulation and

Full access
Behnjamin J. Zib, Xiquan Dong, Baike Xi, and Aaron Kennedy

improved diagnostic outputs and fixed fields from its predecessor R1. Relevant improvements to the model physics consist of a new SW radiation scheme ( Chou 1992 ; Chou and Lee 1996 ) to remove excess surface insolation found in R1, updated cloud-tuning coefficients for stratus clouds, and radiation calculations performed on a full Gaussian grid at every hour as opposed to every 3 h in R1. Cloud fraction in R2 is diagnosed from an empirical relative humidity–cloud cover relationship and is assumed to

Full access
Mark Decker, Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Koichi Sakaguchi, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

the net radiation minus the ground heat flux. Aside from errors due to the lack of energy balance closure, the different sites in this study use different measuring techniques for other quantities considered here. Only two of the sites use a snow adaptor on the tipping-bucket rain gauge to improve the measurement of snow. Wind speed is also measured differently depending on the site, as some use cup–vane anemometers, while others, such as Me4, use sonic anemometers. It is important to note that

Full access