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Chunmei Zhu, Tereza Cavazos, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

monsoon. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 78 , 2197 – 2213 . Barnett , T. P. , L. Dumenil , U. Schlese , E. Roeckner , and M. Latif , 1989 : The effect of Eurasian snow cover on regional and global climate variations. J. Atmos. Sci. , 46 , 661 – 685 . Barnston , A. G. , R. E. Livezey , and M. S. Halpert , 1991 : Modulation of Southern Oscillation–Northern Hemisphere mid-winter climate relationships by the QBO. J. Climate , 4 , 203 – 217 . Barry , R. G. , G. Kiladis

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Katrina Grantz, Balaji Rajagopalan, Martyn Clark, and Edith Zagona

, several studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between winter precipitation, particularly snowfall, and subsequent summer precipitation ( Gutzler 2000 ; Higgins and Shi 2000 ; Lo and Clark 2002 ; Zhu et al. 2005 ). This relationship is thought to result from snowfall acting as an energy sink. Greater amounts of snowfall in winter require more energy to melt and evaporate the moisture by summer. Larger snow cover areas also increase the albedo in spring, thus reinforcing the relationship

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Chunmei Zhu and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

records as described below. Adjustments to parameters resulting from the calibration process were applied regionally so that the entire domain was adjusted. Land cover characteristics were derived from the University of Maryland global vegetation classifications ( Hansen et al. 2000 ). The leaf area index (LAI) is based on the gridded (1/4°) monthly global LAI database of Myneni et al. (1997) . In this study, the monthly LAI is specified for each grid cell for each vegetation class with no

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Enrique R. Vivoni, Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado, Carlos A. Aragón, Luis A. Méndez-Barroso, Alex J. Rinehart, Robert L. Wyckoff, Julio C. Rodríguez, Christopher J. Watts, John D. Bolten, Venkataraman Lakshmi, and Thomas J. Jackson

variability in the core of the North American monsoon region. J. Climate , 17 , 4473 – 4480 . Gutzler , D. G. , and J. Preston , 1997 : Evidence for a relationship between spring snow cover in North American and summer rainfall in New Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 24 , 2207 – 2210 . Higgins , R. W. , and Coauthors , 2003 : Progress in pan American CLIVAR research: North American monsoon system. Atmósfera , 16 , 29 – 65 . INEGI , 1998 : Modelos Digitales de Elevación 1:250, 000

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Andrea J. Ray, Gregg M. Garfin, Margaret Wilder, Marcela Vásquez-León, Melanie Lenart, and Andrew C. Comrie

seasonal climate forecasts from user perspectives. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 683 – 698 . Hawkins , T. W. , A. W. Ellis , D. Reigle , and J. Skindlov , 2002 : Intra-annual analysis of the North American snow cover–monsoon teleconnection: Seasonal forecasting utility. J. Climate , 15 , 1743 – 1753 . Higgins , R. W. , and W. Shi , 2000 : Dominant factors responsible for interannual variability of the summer monsoon in the southwestern United States. J. Climate , 13

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