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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

wind profiles from soundings. Lake Ontario was mostly ice free during the 7–9 January event, except for some of the bays and inlets in its northeastern corner. Ice cover and lake surface temperatures (LSTs) were manually specified for the WRF simulation using gridded surface- and satellite-based analyses valid just prior to the event (6 January) from the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System (GLCFS). Following Gerbush et al. (2008) , areas

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David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

Collaborative field operations in severe winter weather conditions are performed during the OWLeS campaign to observe and understand Great Lakes–generated snow storms. Snow began to fall on the evening of 17 November 2014, the night before an international headline-making lake-effect snowstorm. Less than two days later, more than 150 cm of snow covered parts of Buffalo, New York; roofs had collapsed; thousands of motorists were stranded; and power went out from falling trees and branches ( NWS

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David A. R. Kristovich, Luke Bard, Leslie Stoecker, and Bart Geerts

clouds between the western and southern shores of Lake Ontario and the initiation of lake-effect clouds. The satellite image in Fig. 3 shows that the low-level clouds originating from over Lake Erie were not evident over and north of the Lake Ontario shoreline. However, exactly where the UPBL clouds from Lake Erie dissipated is difficult to discern due to the snow-covered ground below them. Forward-oriented photographic images taken from the UWKA along flight stack B provide some insight into the

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Peter G. Veals and W. James Steenburgh

(hereafter Tug Hill). World-record snowfall accumulations observed in this region include 30.5 cm (12 in.) in 1 h at Copenhagen, New York; 44.5 cm (17.5 in.) in 2 h at Oswego, New York; and 129.5 cm (51 in.) in 16 h at Bennetts Bridge, New York ( Burt 2007 ). A 24-h snowfall of 195.6 cm (77 in.) occurred on Tug Hill from 11–12 January 1997, but was based on six measurements instead of four and is considered unofficial ( Leffler et al. 1997 ). Much of Tug Hill averages over 500 cm (200 in.) of snow per

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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

-color imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra polar-orbiting satellite (ge.ssec.wisc.edu/modis-today/index.php). A false-color image was chosen as it allows low-level clouds to be visually distinguished from underlying snow cover or lake ice. In addition, synoptic maps were generated with 12-km North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) analysis data archived on the NCDC National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) website

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Leah S. Campbell and W. James Steenburgh

). We used the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) land-use dataset for land-use characteristics and the North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) analyses for atmospheric initial and lateral boundary conditions (6-h intervals), land surface conditions, and snow-coverage distribution. Over the Great Lakes, we specified ice cover manually based on inspection of Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) ice-cover analyses from 11 and 12 December and included localized ice cover in Black Bay

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Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, Peter G. Veals, Theodore W. Letcher, and Justin R. Minder

is designed to work with both rain and snow and offers an improvement over the rain-specific algorithm used in generic Metek processing. The method includes noise removal, dealiasing, the calculation of equivalent radar reflectivity factor (hereafter simply “reflectivity”), removal of the top one and bottom two range gates, and averaging of the data to 60-s intervals. As discussed in Minder et al. (2015) , a brief intercomparison of the MRRs used at SIB, SC, and NR revealed only a small (<3 dB Z

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W. James Steenburgh and Leah S. Campbell

, and mixed forest (not shown). Analyses from the NCEP North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) provide initial atmospheric and land surface (soil moisture, soil temperature, and snow cover) conditions at 1200 UTC 10 December 2013, as well as lateral boundary conditions at 6-h intervals throughout the study period. For Great Lakes surface temperatures, we use the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System analysis at 6-h intervals. In areas

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Seth Saslo and Steven J. Greybush

. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 54 , 1177 – 1190 , doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0291.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0291.1 Cordeira , J. M. , and N. F. Laird , 2008 : The influence of ice cover on two lake-effect snow events over Lake Erie . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 136 , 2747 – 2763 , doi: 10.1175/2007MWR2310.1 . 10.1175/2007MWR2310.1 Desroziers , G. , L. Berre , B. Chapnik , and P. Poli , 2005 : Diagnosis of observation, background, and analysis-error statistics in observation space . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor

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Daniel T. Eipper, Steven J. Greybush, George S. Young, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

cover all periods with dominant bands in OWLeS with the exception of the 15–16 December 2013 storm. Following the identification of these time periods, reanalysis simulations were generated for each period with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). These reanalyses were generated by assimilating hourly in situ observations (e.g., operational surface, aircraft, and radiosonde data were assimilated; radar reflectivities and OWLeS field observations were not

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