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  • NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) – Pre-launch Applied Research x
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Sujay V. Kumar, Kenneth W. Harrison, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., and Dalia Kirschbaum

Theoretical Basis Doc., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 21 pp. Cohen, J. , and Entekhabi D. , 1999 : Eurasian snow cover variability and Northern Hemisphere climate predictability . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 26 , 345 – 348 , doi: 10.1029/1998GL900321 . Crow, W. , and Wood E. , 2003 : The assimilation of remotely sensed soil brightness temperature imagery into a land surface model using ensemble Kalman filtering: A case study based on ESTAR measurements during SGP97 . Adv. Water Resour

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Catherine Champagne, Andrew Davidson, Patrick Cherneski, Jessika L’Heureux, and Trevor Hadwen

to provide guidelines on how SMOS soil moisture can be used as a simple, near-real-time risk assessment tool. 2. Methodology The area examined in this study covers the agricultural extent of Canada (defined as the area where climate, soils, and land cover permit crop production). This covers a very diverse geographical region, with maritime agriculture in the eastern provinces; temperate grain and oilseed production in Ontario and Quebec; cold-region prairie agriculture in Manitoba, Saskatchewan

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Marco L. Carrera, Stéphane Bélair, and Bernard Bilodeau

; Drusch and Viterbo 2007 ). To better represent the land surface in environmental prediction and assimilation systems, the Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS) is being developed at EC’s Meteorological Research Division (MRD). It is planned that CaLDAS will provide the initial conditions, including soil moisture, surface temperature, snow cover, and vegetation properties to both EC’s deterministic and ensemble prediction systems. Much of the early operational development of CaLDAS focused

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C. Albergel, W. Dorigo, R. H. Reichle, G. Balsamo, P. de Rosnay, J. Muñoz-Sabater, L. Isaksen, R. de Jeu, and W. Wagner

study. Fig . 1. Location of the in situ soil moisture stations used in this study (black dots) and ERA-Land mean soil moisture over the whole 1979–2010 period (filtered from snow covered areas). (i) NRCS-SCAN A total of 177 stations from NRCS-SCAN ( http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/scan/ ; Schaefer and Paetzold 2000 ) were used in this study. This network is a comprehensive, United States–wide soil moisture and climate information system designed to provide data to support natural resource assessments

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Randal D. Koster, Gregory K. Walker, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Rolf H. Reichle

current state of a system (e.g., snow amount, soil moisture, and climate indices), calibrated regressions are applied that transform these quantities into streamflow forecasts. The historical use of these statistical techniques is arguably a reflection of historical limitations in our ability to model accurately the physical processes that generate streamflow—in particular our ability to provide the high-resolution forcing and boundary condition data needed to support the physical modeling. The advent

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M. Susan Moran, Bradley Doorn, Vanessa Escobar, and Molly E. Brown

-like data, but also to prepare operational program and policy users for exploitation and assimilation of SMAP products, once available ( Magagi et al. 2013 ; McNairn et al. 2015 ). In the Cold Land Processes Experiment, combining the active and passive measurements like those planned for SMAP resulted in decreased errors in estimates of snow water equivalent and underlying soil freeze–thaw state ( Bateni et al. 2013 ). The long-term soil moisture measurements of the USDA Soil Climate Analysis Network

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Susan Frankenstein, Maria Stevens, and Constance Scott

the model and “allows for the development of quantitative information on the mobility of a given vehicle in a selected geographic area” ( U.S. Army 1973 , p. 3). AMC ’71 was mainly used to assess off-road performance design considerations for new vehicle development. The AMC ’71 model was soon followed by AMC ’74. Major revisions included vehicle performance on slippery soils, muskeg, and shallow snow; improved driver behavior; travel on paved roads; and upgrades to the computer code ( Jurkat et

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